Important points to be considered" before washing clothes:
1. Clothes should be washed as soon as they become dirty. Fresh dirt can easily be washed.
2. Soiled clothes should not be kept with clean clothes.
3. Very heavily soiled clothes should be washed separately.
4. It is better to wash coloured and white clothes separately.
5. Cotton, silk, synthetic, and woolle clothes should be segregated and washe separately.
6. They should be repaired before washing.
7. Soaps and detergents should be selected according to the type of cloth.
8. After washing, blue or starch should be applied if needed.
9. Coloured clothes should be dried ii shade.
10. White clothes should not be kept in sun for a longer period as they tend to lo» their whiteness.
Washing of cotton clothes
(i) Clothes should be segregated like separate the furnishing towels and the clothes we wear.
(ii) Repairing of clothes should be done like stitching of buttons, cuffs, and collars, etc.
(iii) Stations should be washed first.
(iv) Cuffs and collars should be cleaned first and they are usually more dirty.
They should be soaked in soap or detergent solution for some time to lose the dirt from the pores. If the clothes are heavily soiled, then they should be soaked in warm water. Kitchen dusters, socks, etc. should be soaked separately.
Clothes should be rubbed well and washed. Places like cuffs and collars should be rubbed with the brush.
Clothes should be rinsed in water properly till whole of the soap is removed. Then they should be squeezed.
According to the type of clothes, bluing should be done.
Starch should be selected and strength should be decided according to the use of garments.
(g) Removal of water.
Clothes should be squeezed properly to remove extra water.
Clothes should be dried in sun and coloured clothes in shade.
(i) Finishing. After drying, clothes should be ironed to give them good finish.
Washing of silk clothes
Silk clothes are delicate clothes. They should be washed very carefully most of the time it is advisable to get it dry-cleaned. Soap and water makes its fibres weak. They should not be rubbed as it spoils its colour and texture.
(i) Repairing should be done.
(ii) Stains should be removed when fresh.
(iii) Dilute solutions should be used. It is better to use petrol, benzene etc.
Soak silk clothes in detergent and very Luke warm water. Rita and Shikakai solutions are suitable to wash such clothes. They should not be rubbed. Light pressure should be applied on silk clothes.
They should be rinsed many times till all the detergent is removed. But they should not be squeezed. Water should be removed by pressing between palms. Vinegar should be added in final rinse for shine.
Gum starch should be applied to silk clothes.
Silk should be dried in shade otherwise they lose their luster and colour also gets faded.
Ironing should be done when the clothes are slightly moist. If the clothes are embroidered, ironing should be done from reverse side.
Washing of woollen clothes
(i) Before washing they should be dusted with brush.
(ii) Repairing should be done.
(iii) Mild detergent recommended for woollen clothes should be chosen.
(iv) They should be traced on a brown paper.
They should be soaked for 10- 15 minutes. They should be washed in lukewarm water. The brush should not be used. They should be rubbed lightly by hands.
They should be rinsed in enough water and water should be removed by pressing between palms. They should not be squeezed.
They should be dried in shade and spread on the brown paper to retain their shape. They should not be hanged otherwise they will lose their shape.
After drying they should be steam-pressed. They should be ironed by applying water through cloth pad.
Costly woollen clothes should be dry- cleaned. They should not be washed at home.
Washing of synthetic clothes
It is easy to wash synthetic clothes.
(i) Repair clothes. (ii) Remove stains.
Good detergent should be selected to wash these clothes. Cuffs and Collars should be rubbed beforehand. They should be brushed lightly and washed with soap or detergent.
They should be rinsed 2 to 3 times till all the soap is removed. They should not be squeezed hard.
They should be hanged and dried in sun.
(c) Finishing. These clothes should be ironed at a very low temperature.
Often, clothes are dried on a rope or wire in the courtyard of the house. Clippers are used for hold fastening of clothes. Woollen clothes are not dried by hanging as the garment will become shapeless. These clothes should be dried on a cot or on a leveled surface. In the western countries, drying cabinet is used where these clothes are dried electrically.
Finishing and ironing. The clothes are finished after drying. These are ironed. Small quantity of water is sprinkled on clothes before ironing them.
These days many type of irons are available in the market. Different temperatures are required to iron different type of clothes. Now the irons are fitted with thermostat to control temperature.
Cotton clothes are ironed at high temperature. Ironing should be done along the direction of the fibre. This helps in giving added luster to the clothes. Embossed embroidery and monograms should be ironed on the wrong side on a pad. Sleeve board is also used for ironing sleeves. Wooden plank which is called ironing board is used for ironing clothes which can be folded.
Clothes are also finished by calendaring. Sarees and dupatta are given finishing by it. Clothes are starched and stretched without applying any pressure and dried. Clothes are pressed in two metallic revolving rollers. It helps in drying and ironing the clothes.