What are the Factors that Affect Physical Development of Children?

There are many factors affecting physical develop­ment of Children. Some importance factors are given below:

(i) Heredity:

Development depends upon the potentials that child gets from his parents. These potentials decide the limit of development of a child, e.g., height, weight, body structure, etc.

(ii) Nutrition:

The nutrition that child gets before birth or after birth affects his development. If the child gets good nutrition he develops well and completes his developmental tasks. His bones, muscles and internal organs also develop well.

(iii) Immunization at proper time saves the child from various diseases:

This helps the child to grow properly. Children who suffer from infectious diseases become weak and their body development lags behind.

(iv) Proper ventilation:

Sunlight and pure air helps in good body development. Sun rays are good source of Vitamin D which makes bones of the child strong.

(v) Endocrine gland:

Hormones help in the development of the child. Secretions of thyroid and parathyroid glands help in the growth and development of bones and body. Hypo secretion of pituitary gland makes the child midget and hyper secretion makes the child abnormally tall. Thyroxin secreted by thyroid gland controls the physiological activities of the body.

(vi) Prenatal period:

Health of the mother, her nutrition, immunization, her mental state affect the baby in the womb as the body of the fetus develops in the womb of the mother. If the mother is healthy and tension free then the development of the baby will be good. Even after birth such babies grow well.

(vii) Family:

Family where the develop­ment of the baby takes place directly affects the development of the child. It provides proper atmosphere, opportunities, encourage­ment to the child to explore his environment so that he develops himself through this exploration.

(viii) Sex difference:

At the time of birth the rate of physical development is more but it is different in boys and girls. In the beginning bones and muscle development is better in girls but till the end of childhood boys also grow and are ahead of girls. Sexually girls mature faster.

(ix) Intelligence:

It has been seen that intelligence affects the physical development. Children who are intelligent grow fast physically and children with low intelligence achieve their developmental tasks at a slow speed.

(x) Socio-economic status:

Socio­economic status of children affects the all round development of the child. Families which can provide all the facilities like good nutrition, clothes, hygienic conditions, healthy recreations, etc. help in maintaining good health of the children so that they can develop good physique. Parents of low income group cannot provide good facilities to their children and the health status of the children are not good as they lag behind in physical develop­ment.