(1) Biological factors
(a) Sense organs
Sense organs are important because they receive stimuli from the environment. Their proper development helps in receiving correct stimuli and the correct concepts are formed. Defective sense organs collect defective stimuli and as a result wrong concepts can be formed and the cognitive development will not be perfect.
It has been seen that cognitive development of intelligent children is better. Children with low Intelligence Quotient are not able to receive stimuli from the environment properly, thus their cognitive development lags behind. Intelligence affects all mental capacities.
Cognitive development is also influenced by the hereditary traits; one gets from his parents. Their development is similar to their parents cognitive development.
As the child gets matured he gets more interactive with his environment. For a good cognitive development interaction with environment is very necessary which the child does with the help of his mental and motor maturation. They help directly in the development of cognition.
(2) Environment factors
(а) Learning opportunities
The opportunity a child gets to learn affects the cognitive development. The more opportunities he gets the better is the cognition, because he will be able to add to his mental capacities by learning through these opportunities.
(б) Economic status
Economic state of the family also helps in the development of cognition. Children from better economic status get more opportunities and better training and it helps in cognitive development.
Play is also quite important in developing cognition. Through play activities, the child interacts with the environment, receives stimuli and responds to them.
Through this he learns new processes acquire knowledge. He forms new com Eighteen months-old draws irregular sketch with crayons when he sees some similar between the sketch and any object around him.
He immediately understands and image is formed in his mind; e.g., he sketch a 'circle' and mother points out towards 'mi He is now able to recognise this shape, child while playing and while many his toys learns many new experiences, becomes imaginative and does drama holding a 'Gada' and becomes Lord Hanum He plays school-school. Chess and cards in increasing his mental abilities.
(d) Various types of stimuli
As child grows, he gets various stimuli from environment through his senses and perceives their meanings. These stimuli form concepts and symbols. Parents and other people around the child could assist him get the right meanings of stimuli. T1 instructions and motivation help in cognitive development of the child. The child gets these stimuli from his toys and activities like identifying different colour shapes, smell, and sounds, etc.
(e) Family and society
Family is v important from the point of view of providing the child hereditary traits, which are the of development family also providing opportunities to learn, good encourage atmosphere to the child if the family provides such atmosphere to the child in which he maximum stimuli from the environment, would be encouraged to learn and with his environment. His cognitive development will be good.
The child learns observing and imitating others. He learns language, habits, by observing family and people around them. If society provide encouraging atmosphere, facilities gaining knowledge like good schools, librarian's healthy recreation facilities, health facilities etc. to the children, they will develop possibility and good cognitive capacity. So we see the family and society both play an important rot in the development of cognition of the child.