What are the Executive Powers of the President of India?

The President is the chief head of the Union Executive. All executive powers of the Union are vested in him (Act 53). These powers are exercised by him directly or through officers subordinate to him. The laws passed by the Parliament are executed by him. All executive actions are taken in his name or under his authority. The following are the important powers of the President.

(a) Rules of Business-

The President makes the Rules of Business (allocation of work) for the government of India.

(b) Appointment-

He appoints the Prime Minister and other members of the Council of Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. He appoints the Governors, Ambassadors or High Commissioners, the Chief Justice and other Judges of the Supreme Court as well as of the High Court, the Attorney-General of India and the members of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), the Election Commission and the Planning Commission.

(c) Removal and Transfer-

The President has the power to dismiss the Union Ministers if they do not resign on being defeated in the Lok Sabha on Money Bill or if they do not advise the dissolution of the Lok Sabha on this occasion. He has the power to dismiss any Governor. He can transfer judges from one High Court to another and Governors from one state to another.

(d) Military -

He is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the country. He can declare war against another country. He can also sign a peace treaty with it.

(e) Diplomatic -

It is the President who accredits and receives Ambassadors.

(f) Control over States-

The President has the power of direction, coordination and control of certain functions relating to state governments.

He is empowered to send directives to Governors in some executive matters. He can direct any Governor to ensure that the state government complies with the laws made by the Union Government. The President is also directly responsible for the administration of Union Territories like Delhi and Andaman etc.

(g) Cabinet Decisions-

The President has a constitutional right to be informed of the decisions of the Council of Ministers.

According to the 42nd Amendment, 1976, the President will be bound to accept the advice pf the Council of Ministers. But, under the 44th Amendment, 1978, he has the power to send back any proposal of the Council of Ministers to it, but if that proposal is returned to him, he will be bound to accept it.