What are the Causes of Partition of India?

In 1940 A.D. in Lahore Sessions, the Muslims first of all placed their demand for Pakistan in very clear and main words and proposed to make a Muslim state by uniting the northwest and the eastern region.

In 1941 A.D. of the time of the Madras Session Muhammad Alijinnah put forth the demand that the aim of the Muslim League was to establish an independent state in the north western and easterns provinces.

We are not prepared to accept any such constitution as established by the central Government in entire India. Tinnah delivered fiery speeches and playing with the feelings of pathans.

In the 'August Offer' Lord Tinth first of all assured the Indian Muslims that they would be provided with all protection, if any settlement took place between the British and the Indians.

Both the Hindus and Muslims rejected the Cripps Plan in 1942 A.D. The Indian National Congress began the Quite India Movement but the Muslim League did not support it.

As most of the prominent leaders of the congress were behind bars, the leaders of the Muslims League gave wide publicity to their demand for Pakistan. The Muslim leaders and the students of Aligarh Muslim University also supported this demand.

The idea of Pakistan was welcomed by the English language News paper 'Dawn" and Urdu Newspapers 'Jang' and 'Mansur' published from Delhi. The publicity of the Muslim League succeeded and one after the other many news papers from Calcutta also supported the demand for Pakistan.

The Indian leaders were also in favour of the creation of Pakistan The proposal of the cabinet Mission was first accepted by the Muslim league and the congress since 1947 A.D. but soon the Muslim League rejected it and refused to take part in the Interim Govt. The Muslim League celebrated the 'Direct Action Day' on 16th July 1946 A.D.

Hence the Hindu Muslim riots broke out in the country. An inter in Govt, was formed and the leadership of this Govt, was given to Pandit Nehru but the league did not recognise the interim Govt. A large number of people were killed in the communal riots in different parts of the country. Ultimately the British

Govt, declared in February 1947 to leave India by June 1948 A.D. and Lord Mountbatten was sent to India for the final solution of the Indian problems. As the league celebrated the Pakistan Day on 27th March 1947 A.D; the people of Punjab and Bengal resorted to blood-shed and burning of property.

The interim Govt, failed to control this situation hence the leaders of India accepted the proposal of Pakistan and thus the draft of Pakistan plan, also known as June plan or Mountbatten plan was put before the congress and league. It was accepted by both the originations. Thus the Act of 1947 A.D. was passed by the English Govt, and India was partitioned into two independent states, that is, the Indian union and Pakistan on 15th August 1947 A.D.

Causes of the partition of India:

The partition of India was the most significant event in the history of India. Its chief reason was the antic thinking of the Muslims and their communalism. But the circumstances under which it occurred made it one of the saddest events of the history of India. No doubt, the Hindus and the Muslims were living together since long but they failed to inculcate the feeling of harmony and unity among themselves.

The funatic leaders played a prominent role in stoking the fires of rabid communalism. As a result, the partition of India and formation of Pakistan took place. The following factors contributed to it.

1. Activities of the Muslim League:

The English Govt played a significant role in the formation of Muslim League. The English wanted to create dissensions among the people India in order to consolidate their own position.

The chief aim of the Muslim League was so spread the poison of communalism and the Muslim leaders had their own axe to grind through the medium of this organisation.

In the beginning the Muslim League did not prove to be an influential organisation due to its narrow and negative approach. M. A. Jinnah's two nation theory was actually a slogan for the formation of a separate nation for the Indian Muslims.

2. Congress's policy of Appeasement:

No doubt, in the partition of India and making of Pakistan, the policies of the English Govt, and the Muslim League were responsible to a great extent but the policy of appealement of the Muslims, adopted by the congress also proved helpful in this field.

Unfortunately congress did not try to understand the isolationist and aggressive policy of the Muslim and it continued to sustain the false, hope that there might be some miracle by which the communal problem could be averted forever.

The leaders of congress failed to under stand the Muslim character and they continued to commit blunders. In 1916 A.D. of the Lucknow Pact, they accepted the principle of separate franchise for the Muslims and the next blunder was committed by them at the time of accepting the communal electorate system in 1932 A.D.

3. Communal Reaction:

As a result of Muslim communalism, Hindu communalism also came into being. The staunch Hindus formed an organisation. Hindu Maha Sabha and other organisation.

The system of Shuddic which was adopted by the Arya Sainaj created doubt in the minds of the Muslims. Hindu Maha Sabha not only raised a slogan for the establishment of this nation but also blamed the congress for being anti- Hindu organisation. As a result of the Hindu communalism, the Muslim communalism grew all the more powerful and they raised the slogan of a separate nation.

4. Congress policy of strengthening India:

The Congress felt that there was one alternative to get ride of this problem and that was the partition of India

5. Formation of weak Pakistan:

Various leaders of India opined that from political, economic, geographical and military points of view, Pakistan would prove to be a weak nation instead of being a stable one and owing to its own shortcomings; Pakistan could again be incorporated into India. In fact, the unwanted optimism of the Indian leaders also contributed to the making of Pakistan.

6. Development Transfer of power:

The British Prime Minister Attlee declared on 20th Feb. 1947 A.D. that in every condition the English would leave India by June 1948 A.D.

This declaration created a fear in the hearts of the Indian leaders incases, India was not divided by that date, a civil war would breakout and the country divided into various parts. So, the members of the congress accepted the partition proposal because they did not want to annoy Mountbatten nor did they wish to offend the British Government in that any valid reason.

After acceptance of the partition of India by the Muslim League riots broke out in different parts of country. On 20th Feb. 1947 A.D. the British Prime Minister declared that by June 1948 A.D. they would leave Indian by all mean and in the meant time the British drew up the Indian Independence Act of 1947 A.D.

Provisions of the Indian Independence Act:

The following were the main provision of Indian Independence Act of 1947 A.D.

(a) On 15th August 1947 A.D. after the partition of India two Independent kingdoms, such as India and Pakistan would be established.

(b) In the territory of India all the provinces of British India would be included excepting the territory which would be included in Pakistan.

(c) Eastern Bengal, Western Punjab, Sindh and North West Frontier province would be included in Pakistan.

(d) Both the nations would decide of their own accord if they had to accept the membership of the British common wealth of nations or not.

(e) The British crown would appoint separate governor generals in both the states but in case both of them wanted to share one viceroy with their mutual consent, they could be permitted.

(f) The supremacy of the crown would come to an end and pacts so far made between the crown and the native rulers would be treated as nullified.

(g) The title of Emperor of India awarded to the British crown would be abolished and the post of the Secretary of state for India would also come to and end.

(h) The native rulers would have the choice to accede to any state according to their own choice.

So the second phase of the constitutional development of India also came to end on the 15th August, 1947 A.D. at midnight and India became free.