What were the impacts of Renaissance on art, architecture, science?

The Renaissance which started in Italy and spread to other countries of Europe, left a deep impact on art, architecture, science, and above all on human thinking. Therefore, Renaissance left a manifold impact.

In the first place, it aroused interest in humanism. The scholars of Renaissance period showed very little respect to religion and medieval philosophy and began to attach more importance to the present life than the life after death and paid greater attention to the improvement of human life.

Scholars like Dante, Petrarch, Erasmus were great humanists and, bitterly criticized superstitious beliefs.

Secondly, the concept of education also underwent great transforma­tion, and its base was greatly widened. The aim of education came to be regarded as the production of an ideal man, who should be able to appre­ciate art, music, poetry etc.

Thirdly, the development of scientific outlook gave a serious set back to the position of the church. During the renaissance period people became critical of the superstitions and meaningless rituals practiced by the church and insisted on the reforms of the church. This paved the way for the Reformation movement which led to numerous reforms in the church.

Fourthly, renaissance proved an impetus to vernacular literature. Scholars began to write in the language of common men and concentrated on topics of common human interest.

Fifthly, renaissance led to new forms of paintings, sculpture, architec­ture, music etc. and thus rendered valuable service to the growth of fine arts.

Sixthly, renaissance contributed to the development of the scientific attitude and encouraged the people to accept the things only if they ap­pealed to their reason. This scientific outlook gave a set back to blind faith and encouraged new discoveries and inventions which greatly con­tributed to the progress of human civilization.

Seventhly, the invention of Mariner's compass during the Renaissance period an impetus to navigation and paved the way for the process of colonization. The race for colonies among various European powers led to numerous bloody wars.

Eighthly, renaissance greatly contributed to the evolution of strong monarchical system of government in Europe. The serious blow given to the authority of the church and the feudal system strengthen the desire of people to have peace, security and political stability. Therefore, they readily provided support to the kings and thus contributed to the enhance­ment of the powers of monarchs.

Finally, it paved way for the reformation. In this regard Southgate has observed, "The Renaissance was the awakening of Europe from its long period of slumber. Stagnation gave place to progress; intellectual activity replaced unquestioning submission; authority was challenged.

The new scientific spirit, the spirit of inquiry, encouraged men to go forth to the ends of the earth and to explore its surface to query taboos on scientific in­vestigation, and above all, to question the authority of the Church. This in the end, was bound to lead to the Reformation, which would never have occurred, had it not been for the development of that spirit of inquiry which characterized the Renaissance."