Environmental Factors of Learning:
The influence of environment begins since the time of the conception of the child in the womb of the mother. Foetus in the womb is influenced by mother's mental, physical and emotional conditions.
The external environment starts from the time of birth of the child. The external environment refers to the surroundings which prevail in home, school and locality.
At these places the child interacts with other members of the family, teachers' classmates or peers and neighbours. He establishes relationship with them. Some of the environmental factors are as under:
Surroundings: Chief surroundings are as under:
(1) Natural surroundings:
Natural surrounding covers the climatic and atmospheric conditions. For a limited time, humidity and high temperature can be tolerated but prolonged humidity and high temperature become unbearable.
They decrease mental efficiency. The intellectual productivity and creativeness of people living in hot regions are much low. Likewise, the morning time is always better for mastering difficult tasks.
Studies on the academic progress of evening school students show losses of efficiency varying from one to six percent.
(2) Social surroundings:
Social surroundings Includes especially the environment of home, school and locality. Learning is affected by physical conditions at home such as large family, small family (specific family of the study) insufficient ventilation, improper lighting, uncomfortable temperature, noisy home environment due to use of radio, and TV etc.
The socio-emotional factors such as child rearing practices, reward and punishment, scope for freedom in activities are decision making play and study facilities, disorganization and discord among birth positions such as eldest or youngest child has his definite influence on learning.
Cultural Demands and Social Expectation:
They influence learning deeply; the spirit of culture is reflected in its social and educational institutions. For instance, in an industrialized culture, the emphasis mostly centers mechanical science and preparing children for highly mechanized vocations.
Likewise, in an agriculture based community, the educational process focuses on preparing its members for those skills which are suited to the needs of an agrarian community.
Relationship with Teachers, Parents and Peers: This relationship can be explained as under:
(1) The setup of learning:
The teacher is an important constituent in the instructional process. The way he teaches and manages the students has an effect on their learning.
An authoritarian teacher will create an aggression and hostility among students. On the contrary for it a democratic teacher will create a participatory climate for learning.
The democratic environment leads students to constructive and cooperative behaviour. Generally, students learn better in a democratic setup because they like democratic procedures.
(2) Relationship with parents:
It plays a vital role in the learning process of the student. If the child-parents relationship is based on mutual respect and faith, it can facilitate his or her learning.
On the contrary to it a distorted and unhealthy environment, adversely affects the learning of the student. The upward mobility brings resistance on the part of the student to learn. Student's belongings to such families find themselves unable to cope up.
(3) A healthy peer group:
This relationship also plays an important role in learning. Student-student relationship in the classroom, school, society, etc., creates a particular type of emotional climate. The climate solely depends upon their relationships.
A sound relationship provides a tension free environment to the student enabling him to learn more and to complete in the class. If the relationship among peers is not good, it adversely affects their learning.
Media Influence of Learning:
According to the psychologists, the media is an important component of transmitting information. Media can be divided into two broad categories Print and Non-print media. Their brief description is as under:
1. Print media:
It refers to texts or printed materials. It is economical and has traditionally been used for the pedagogical purposes.
2. Non-Print media:
It is also known as modern electronic media. It has certain unique qualities which in certain cases facilities learning much far faster than the print media.
Certain non-print media formats and delivery systems contribute a lot to students learning activities. For example, audio tapes or computer can be used effectively to drill and practice in language and learning arithmetic. Electronic media can contribute a lot to promote the discovery approach to learning. Non print media performs following functions
1. Arouse motivation
2. Direct mention
3. Help them actively involved in the learning process.
4. Increase student's concentration.