7 very important questions on History on Civil Service Examinations (IAS)

1. How would you explain the production of luxury items during the Mughal days?

During the Mughal days luxury items were produced in the - karkhanas. The karkhanas used to produce specialized items for the consumption of the members of the royal family.

Also aristocratic Mughals or court-nobles were consumers of the luxury items. The luxury articles such as pearl, cloth of gold, etc. were consumed locally and not sold in the common market.

The luxury goods were never exported. Common people had no access to luxury goods as the prices were very high.

The manufactures other than the luxury items were cheaper in price and low in quality.

2. What was the standard of the technological skill under the Mughals?

Without going into the question whether the industrial organization under the Mughals was weak it may be said that in certain respects it was stagnating.

It has been pointed out by Jagadish Narayan Sarkar that the technology on which the industry rested was stagnant as compared to China as also in some countries of Western Europe.

Of course there were other weaknesses. The use of coal as fuel, deep mining, etc. was unknown during the Mughal days.

Such weaknesses retarded all prospects of far-reaching technological development. Thus no sign of industrial revolution was visible.

3. Narrate causes that helped the growth of trade and commerce under the Mughals.

The trade and commerce expanded under the Mughals. Several factors were responsible for this.

Firstly, the political integration of the country under the Mughals facilitated improvement in trade and commerce.

Secondly, as a result of the political integration law and order was established over extensive areas of the empire.

Thirdly, the Mughal authority paid attention to the improvement of roads. Sarais also helped communication which in turn helped trade and commerce.

Fourthly, that the Mughal government was sympathetic to the trade and commerce is noticeable from the uniform tax levied on goods at the point of their entry.

Fifthly, Rahadari or road-cess was declared illegal. This also encouraged the traders.

Sixthly, silver rupees of high quality minted by the Mughals became a standard coin in India and abroad. This was also another factor that helped India's trade.

4. What was the importance of the Farrukhsiyar Farman?

By the Farrukhsiyar Farman the English East India Company derived two advantages for its trade in Bengal. These were

(a)the English were to enjoy duty-free trading right on an annual pay neat of Rs. 3000.

(b) a dastak or a special permit issued by the head of the English factory at Calcutta would exempt all goods mentioned in the permit from being stopped or searched by the Nawab's officials.

It may be mentioned here that the two privileges secured by the English Company became the source of all the future conflicts between the Nawabs of Bengal and the English.

Secondly, Professor S. Bhattacharya regarded the Farman as the Magna Carta of English trade in Bengal. From that time onwards there was a steady increase in the business of the Company.

Thirdly, the Farrukhsiyar's Farman of 1717 paved the way for commercial as well as political supremacy of the English in India.

Fourthly, the farman put the Nawab in a very awkward position. The unqualified trading rights of the English in Bengal granted by the Mughal Emperor without reference to the suhahdar of Bengal was bound to affect the authority of the latter.

6. What were the causes of conflict between Sirajuddowla and the English?

Various causes may be assigned to the conflict between Sirajuddowla and the British.

First, the British tried to fish in the troubled water when they gave shelter to Krishnadas in Calcutta. For Krishanadas was an agent of Ghasiti Begum who was an arch enemy of Siraj.

Second, the British refused to obey the Nawab when Siraj ordered them to handover to him Krishnadas.

Third, Siraj was annoyed with the British as he came to know that they had started the repair job of the Calcutta fort without prior permission from the Nawab.

Fourth, there was of course another cause of hostility between the British and Siraj. It was customary to send presents to the Nawab on his accession. All the foreign merchants except the British had sent him presentation. This wounded the sentiments of Siraj and turned anti-British.

7. How a conspiracy was hatched against Siraj?

There were many causes of the rupture of relationship between Siraj and the English. But the influential persons in the Nawab's administration were also not happy with Siraj.

However, when the English were determined to overthrow Shaj for their own interest they were joined by those influential persons.

And all of them combined together and hatched a conspiracy. However, even the treaty of Alinagar failed to establish peace between the English and Sirajuddowla.

For, the English were now determined to depose Sirajuddowla from the Nawabship of Bengal. Clive conspired with the treacherous IV the Jafar, the commander of the Nawab's army and other digs untied officers such as Rai Durlav, Omi Chand and others for the deposition of the Nawab.

In fact, a plan was finalized by them to the effect that Mir jafar would be the next Nawab and others would receive fabulous monetary rewards.