What are the basic elements of our Enviroment?



Human life is surrounded by environment, which comprises of the basic elements like water, vegetation, climate, air, soil, etc. For the safe survival of life on earth these natural resources should be protected and preserved. Elements of environment are as follows:

1. Climate:

Climate is a combination of various dimensions like temperature, rain, humidity, air, etc. Climate, changes with respect to the place, situation, region and location. In a colder region the climate is generally healthy, but increase in the humidity offers a favorable condition for the growth of microorganisms and spread of respiratory problems, and disease related to the bones.

Air pressure, which is 760 mm Hg while going at height, which is above sea level, the air pressure, reduces and thus oxygen level is also reduced.

With the result, man suffers from mental fatigue, headache, sleeplessness, increased respiration, coagulation of Hemoglobin, etc. And if we move below the sea level, air-pressure increases and oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide absorption by the body increases.

Scarce or excessive rainfall also affects environment. When there is an excessive rain, humidity and dampness increase which becomes a good habitat for the microorganisms, flies, mosquito, etc.

Many diseases producing bacteria and virus may spread communicable diseases like cholera, typhoid and malaria. Places where the rainfall is scarce desert vegetation and dry environment prevail.

2. Natural Vegetation:

Every state whether it is in cold or hot region, natural vegetation is affected by the climate and temperature of the region. Thus natural vegetation is the outcome of the local environment. Vegetation provides food to human beings. It is the combination of sun, water and soil, which produces rich vegetation.

A good forest can and does produce enough material to sustain human habitation. It is of great advantage to have agricultural fields in the vicinity of a forest. Every vegetation has its own character shaped by its elevation, climate, terrain, soil and water conditions.

Varieties of essential items are provided by plants and trees like fodder for animals, fuel, compost etc. Vegetative growth and its protection are necessary for human survival. Hence environmental sanitation has become very important.

3. Soil:

The top most layer of land is soil, which is of various types. The chemical composition of the soil gives nutrition to plants and trees to increase the productivity. Sandy Soil, rocky and clay will affect the environment and climate vegetation.

Clay has lot of moisture in it and keeps the water level high in which disease producing bacteria and virus grow. Sandy soil contains sand particles, which can damage the eyes and spread diseases like Trachoma, intestinal worms and other disease-producing microorganisms.

Spores have hard shell which can resist adverse conditions and when it find favorable conditions it multiplies, grows and spreads diseases like tetanus, Anthrax etc.

4. Water:

Human being procured water from river, ponds, well, spring, lakes and seas. The drying-up and replenishment of water from all these sources is a natural process. Underground water in wells, tube well etc. replenish water from the rainwater seepage.

Water is utilized for a variety of functions by various bodies, such as, household water consumption, industrial institutions, and local bodies like municipalities, fire extinguishers, different improvement trusts, in hotels, parks, hospitals etc.