Short essay on the Energy Resources of India

Energy is the capacity to work. We use energy at various levels in different forms. It is used in the kitchen for cooking food to run machines at the factories. The motor vehicles, the trains, the turbines and the aero planes are driven by the energy. The exploration of Antarctica or the arrival of man on the moon is only possible by harnessing energy rich fuels.

Energy provides the power to progress. Its uses at present life are manifold. We cannot grow without it. More the man is advancing towards modernity, more he is becoming dependent on energy. From the prehistoric period, when man first came to know about the use of fire, till date, it plays a key role in the economic and social developments of mankind.

A nation is considered rich not by amount of minerals or industrial resources it possesses, but by its technical ability it has acquired and scientific progress it is making, which depends ultimately on the supply and consumption of energy. The per capita daily consumption of energy of the developed countries is much higher in comparison to the developing countries like India.

Energy consumption pattern of selected nations


Proportions of




1000 kcal

Proportions of

world's energy

Consumption (%)

Proportions of


Population (%)





















We have 15 per cent of world's population; but we consume only 2 per cent of the world's total energy. Whereas countries like USA, Canada, UK, Japan etc. have very less population but their energy consumption is much higher. That is the main reason for which these countries are categorized under 'developed' and India under 'developing' countries. The common units for expression of energy are calorie and BTU or British thermal unit when the quantity is large; we express it in Mega Watt (MW).

Energy Resources:

Along with all other natural resources like air, water, land, forestry and fisheries, energy also occupies an important place. Our progress And prosperity depend solely upon it. Natural resources, energy and Environment are intimate related. Distributed or any one would definitely cause disturbances in other two.

Energy is required for beneficial use of natural resources and the resources, on the other hand, provide energy. The interaction of these two in the environment in safe and tolerable limit is called 'limit of tolerance*. When this is disturbed, great disasters occur.

Depending on the source and availability, energy resources are mainly of two types.

(i) Non-conventional or renewable energy.

(ii) Conventional or non-renewable energy.

(i) Non-conventional or renewable energy

It is a type of non-replenish able or non-exhaustible form obtained from the continuous or repetitive currents of energy occurring in the natural environment. As the source of energy is unlimited, it is also called infinite or renewable energy.

The examples are: Biomass and Biogas Solar, Wind, Tidal, Minihydel and Geothermal.

(ii) Conventional energy

All the non-renewable types of energy come under this category. In this case, the raw materials that provide energy can not be replaced. Once it is used, its stock is depleted for ever. The common types are coal, Oil Natural gas and recently the Nuclear energy.