Main Items of Exports
The main items of India's exports are as under:
1. Jute Manufactures:
It constitutes an important item of traditional exports. Mia exports jute goods to America, Canada, EEC, Australia, New Zealand, Burma, Cuba, Thailand and many other countries.
The total value of exports of all jute manufactures in 1980-81 was of Rs. 330 crore which declined to Rs. 298 crore in 1990-91.
In 2001-02 exports of jute increased to Rs. 612 crore. The fall in jute goods exports has been causing considerable anxiety among the Government as well as industry circles itself. Competition from Bangladesh is another noticeable factor. Thus energetic steps are needed to promote export of jute goods.
Tea is another important item of India's traditional exports. Today, we export tea to U.K., Canada, Ireland, Sudan, West Germany, Netherlands, Australia and many other countries.
India has to compete with Sri Lanka, Africa and Indonesia. Total export of tea was valued at Rs. 1171 crore in 1995-96 against Rs. 626 crore in 1985-86, In 2001-02 total export value of tea amounted to Rs. 1719 crore.
3. Iron Ore:
India produces iron ore in a better quality and it is exported to England and Japan. In 1960-61, its export was of only Rs. 17 crore which rose to Rs. 103 crore in 1980-81 and further of Rs. 1104 crore, ending 1992-93.
Japan is the single largest consumer of Indian iron-ore i.e., about 70 per cent. In 2001-02 export bill of iron on was of Rs. 2034 crore.
Its main importers are England, Japan, Sweden and the Netherlands etc. Though, the quality of our tobacco is inferior to that of Rhodesia and America, still India gives lead in its export.
In 1960-61, its value amounted to Rs. 16 crore which increased to Rs. 141 crore in 1980-81 and Rs. 414 crore in 1992-93. Further, in 20014' export value of tobacco increased to Rs. 808 crore.
5. Manufacturing of Textile Goods:
The textile sector plays a crucial role ii India's export effort. In this category comes a wide range of products, man made textile and handloom products. In 1960-61, it was valued at Rs. 291 crore which increased to Rs. 3747 crore " 1980-81 and Rs. 12498 crore in 1990-91, and further to Rs. 4983 crore in 2001-02.
6. Gems and Jewellery:
These two items now constitute a major growth of export of the country. The export of these items have reached to Rs. 618 crore in 1980-81 against a meager amount of Rs. 45 crore in 1970-71. It has been recorded at Rs. 5247 crore in 1990-91. In the financial year of 2001-02 export bill of jewellery was Rs. 34845 crore
7. Chemicals and Allied Products:
In the recent years, chemicals and allied products have gained momentum in the international market. In 1980-81, total export - value was of Rs. 827 crore while it was hardly Rs. 7 crore in 1960-61.
It has against increased to Rs. 2544 crore in 1990-91 and further increased to Rs. 4822 crore in 1995-96. India also exports its mineral fuels including coal to other countries. It was value at Rs. 22339 crore in 2001-02.
8. Textile Fabrics and Readymade Garments:
The export of textile fabrics and ready made garments amounted to Rs. 1483 crore 1980-81 which rose to Rs. 25478 era 2001-02. Similarly cotton yarn was exported of Rs. 16030 crore in 2001-02 while it was Rs. 2100 crore in 1990-91.
India is also exporting a number of other items such as coffee, leather goods, fish, fish products, railway wagons, rice, sugar, fruits and pulses. In she total exports of India was of the order of Rs. 643 crore in 1960-61 which increased Rs. 6711 crore in 1980-81. It was recorded at Rs. 32553 crore in 1990-91 and to Rs. 25047 crore in 2001-02.