What are the main Effects of Green Revolution on Agriculture in India?

The main effects of green revolution are as stated below:

(a) Favourable Impact

1. Increase in Agricultural Production:

The direct impact of new agricultural strategy/green revolution is the sharp increase in agricultural production. Among all crops, the production of wheat has made spectacular increase after the inception of green revolution.

The production of wheat was 11.0 million tonnes in 1960-61 which increased to 55.1 million tonnes in 1990-91. In 2001-02 it was recorded to 71.8 million tonnes.

Similarly, the production of rice which stood at 34.6 million tonnes in 1960-61 has increased to 74.3 million tonnes in 1990-91 and further to 83.1 in 2001-02. Among the cash crops sugarcane only has shown significant changes.

In 1960-61 its production was 100.00 million tonnes which rose to the level of 300.1 million tonnes in 2001-02. In 2001-02 production of oilseeds was recorded to 20.5 million tonnes.

2. Increase in Per Hectare Yield:

With the adoption of modern technology, the yield per hectare has also shown considerable improvement. In the case of wheat, the yield per hectare rose from 850 kgs. in 1960-61 to 2281 kg per hectare in 1990-91 and again to 2770 per hectare in 2001-02.

Similarly, the yield per hectare of groundnut has been recorded 7.45 kg. in 1960-61 which in 1990-91 increased to 904 kg. per hectare and further to 1065 kg. per hectare in 2000-01. The yield per hectare of sugarcane crossed 60 tonnes per hectare in 1960-61 from 65 tonnes per hectare in 1990-91.

Its yield per hectare increased to 67 tonnes per hectare in 2001-02. Regarding rice, its yield per hectare has been marked 1740 kg. in 1990-91 against 1013 kg. per hectare on 1960-61. During 2001-02, its yield was recorded to be 2086 kg.

3. Change in Attitude:

Another healthy contribution of green revolution is the change in the attitude of the peasants in those areas where the modern technology was brought into practice. Indian farmers have now shown their intelligence to adopt latest techniques of production. Now agriculture is not a source of livelihood but it is an industry.

4. Enlargement of Production Function:

The new agricultural strategy (green revolution) has proved that more can be produced with the same resources. This enlargement of production possibilities has led many to speculate. Thus, the new technology possesses an expansionary content.

The reason is very simple that' fertilizer saves us from at least one natural limitation of crop production, i.e., the supply of nutrients from soil.

5. Impact on Employment:

New agricultural strategy is followed by the application of water, fertilizer and other inputs. The associated industries have created quite a large volume of transportation, marketing and food processing requirements. As a result it has helped to generate additional employment opportunities both in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors.

6. Shift from Traditional Agriculture:

A revolutionary impact of green revolution/modern agricultural techniques is that it has broken away from the old and outdated traditional practices.

It has paved to latest and modern technology to raise the productivity per unit of land, per unit of man. With the adoption of high yielding varieties of seeds, chemical fertilizer and irrigation, the production has risen to a record level.

7. Significant Change in Cropping Pattern:

The green revolution/new agricultural strategy has helped to a greater extent to make significant changes in cropping pattern. In the pre-green revolution period, we have hardly two main crops (wheat and maize) and cereals remained stagnant.

But new strategy has ushered the new trend and new cropping pattern emerged in the country. New farmers are keenly interested to grow oilseeds, pulses, cereals and other commercial crops.

8. Prosperity of Farmers:

Green Revolution has improved the economic lot of the farmers. Their standard of living has greatly improved. Agriculture has emerged as a lucrative occupation.

9. Reduction in Import of Food grains:

On account of Green Revolution, import of food grains has considerably declined. According to M.L. Dantwala, "Green Revolution has given a breathing time. Consequently, there will be relief from the anxiety of food shortage and the planners will concentrate more on Indian plans."