There is a close relationship between vegetation, animal life and climate. Vegetation of a region depends upon the climate. Vegetation not only provides food but is also a habitat for different animals.
Animals are mobile and move from place to place but each specie can tolerate only a limited range of climatic conditions. Changes in environment bring out suitable adoption by animals or they migrate to other suitable areas or else there is large scale mortality, leading to extinction of species (e.g., Dinosaurs).
Animals living in cold regions (e.g., tundra) have thick fur or skin to protect them from the intense cold or else they go into hibernation to avoid the bitter cold winter (e.g., Reindeer, wolf, fox, bear). Grasslands are more open and permit rapid movement of animals. Animals here have long legs and hard hooves for swift movement (e.g., zebra, deer, giraffe). Carnivores like lion, tiger are common. Animals living in deserts are light colored with padded feet and double eyelids (e.g., camel). In the tropical.
Rainforests, animals adapt themselves to live among trees. For example, monkeys have opposable thumbs to help them swing from tree to tree. Elephants can move through the thick forests by making their path in the jungle. Variety of animals decreases as we move towards the poles.
Overgrazing, deforestation, improper planning of human activities such as agriculture, forestry and animal grazing, have disturbed the ecological balance. Hence, an understanding of the different species of plants and animals is essential for maintaining the ecological balance.