(a) Latitude Temperature decreases as we go pole wards from the equator. The rays of the sun fall vertically in the lower latitudes and slantingly in the higher latitudes. Places located in the low latitude (e.g., Nagpur) are hotter than places located in the higher latitudes (e.g., Moscow).
(b) Altitude Temperature decreases with increasing altitude at the rate of 1°C for every 165 m of ascent as the atmosphere gets heated by terrestrial radiation. The lower layers of atmosphere are denser and have water vapor and dust particles which absorb heat, which is not prevalent in the higher altitude. Missouri is cooler than Delhi.
(c) Distance from the sea Places located on the coast have moderate temperature as they are affected by land and sea breezes, hence, the temperature is low. Places away from the coast have extremes of temperature. Madras on the coast has moderate temperature and Delhi has extremes of temperature.
(d) Prevailing winds Places which are affected by prevailing on-shore winds have moderate temperature as compared to places which are affected by off-shore (land) winds.
(e) Ocean currents Warm currents raise the temperature of the places, and places affected by cold currents have lower temperature. Winds blowing over the warm current also bring heavy rainfall in the region. Whereas winds blowing over cold current absorb less moisture hence the rainfall is less, e.g., North eastern Canada is affected by the cold Labrador Current hence it remains frozen in winters, whereas Northwestern Europe in the same latitude is affected by the warm North Atlantic drift and has ice-free ports in winters.
(f) Other factors affecting the temperature of a place are: direction of mountains, slope of the land and vegetation, soil.