What are the different Branches of Botany?
Systematic study of any branch of science necessitates its division in to various branches. The botany in early 18th century largely involved the description of plants and their classification. Gradually the knowledge about plants expanded and several branches of the subject were conceived. The important branches are as follows:
This deals with the study of the external form and features of the plant and its parts. The morphological description mostly helps identification and classification of plants.
The morphology is sometimes divided into external morphology and the internal morphology or anatomy. This anatomy involves the study of internal morphology in the description of the internal parts of the plant and its organs. This again includes the study of plant tissues and tissue systems termed as organography.
(taxix-arrangement, nomos-law). This branch involves the study of plant classification and the relationship among the groups of plants. This is also known as systematic botany and involves the technical description of the plants for their classification.
4. Plant Physiology:
(physis-functioning). The study of the various living processes or the processes involving functioning of the plants, constitute a branch of botany called plant physiology. In the modern concept this involves both physical and biochemical study of various living processes. Viz photosynthesis, respiration growth, movement, etc.
(kytos-cell, logos-study). This branch deals with the structure of the cell and its organells. During recent years knowledge about cell and its organells heve added tremendously and as such it became and advanced branch called Cell-Biology.
This branch deals with the resemblance between parents and their offsprings and the transmission of charcters or the hereditary materials from the former to the latter.
As the word indicates (oikos house or place to live in, logos= a study or discourse), ecology is the study of organism in their natural home or habitat. In other words it deals with the study of an organism in relation to its environment. This branch is of immense importance in the present days as it deals with the pollution and control of pollution.
This branch deals with the plants growing in Paleozoic era and now appearing in form of fossils. The study of this branch has importance in evolution of plants and animals and the location of coal and petroleum mines. The Birbal Sahni Paleobotany Institute of Lucknow takes up extensive studies on fossils.
9. Molecular Biology:
The use of analytical instruments and technical advances have led to the quantitative studies of molecular structure and events underlaying biological processes termed Molecular Biology.
The study of molecular biology includes
(i) Analysis of gene structure, function and the mechanism by which genes are replicated and transcribed and control the synthesis of enzymes and proteins,
(ii) Studies of sub-cellular structures and their roles in adaptive and regulatory processes within the cell,
(iii) Investigations of the mechanisms underlaying cellular differentiation and
(iv) Analysis of the molecular basis of evolution.