Notes on the problems of world order, world federation or universal state

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What a world we live in? Is life worth living in the existing conditions? The world is full of strife and hunger. Fear, doubt and perplexity are the order of the day. Psychology of war is working in its full swing. The common man is bewildered.

In less than a generation world has seen two devastating wars and yet it is marching towards a third world war. These are not regional wars but global wars involving almost the entire human race. Each has caused an incalculable loss of life and property. People had joined these organized massacres under the influence of high sounding slogans of freedom and democracy.

We are told that they were fought to put an end to war for good. But it was simply ridiculous. War can never end war. Blood stains can never be erased by blood itself. People of world today are full of dismay and disillusionment. Humanity has reached a crossroad where it has to make a choice between the end of war or its own annihilation.

The loss of life and devastation of property caused by the war proved an eye opener to the warring nations. They clamored for peace and made an attempt towards it In 1919, people were jubilant at the establishment of the League of Nations. They felt sure that the foundation for peace had been laid through international arbitration on a permanent footing. But their hopes were frustrated as the very terms of the Treaty of Versailles contained the germs of war.

The League proved an utter failure. The inevitable happened. The gathering storm broke loose in 1939. A storm that raged for six long years swept with it many other things besides the League of Nations.

The forces of democracy and freedom won and those of dictatorship and barbarism were exterminated. Germany, Itlay and Japan licked the dust; England, America and Russia emerged triumphant Once again the victorious Allies made a concerted effort to rid the world of wars and establish a just International Order. The fruit of their labour is the United Nations Organization.

The future of the United Nations Organization is the future of modem civilization. The future of the World hangs by this slender thread. It seems to be the only hope for a world torn by jealousy, suspicion, and ill-will. Whether the U.N.O. will bring about lasting peace and establish a just international order, or will follow the fate of her late elder sister is an enigma for the statesmen of the world today.

Serious opinion is that another international conflagration will annihilate man and his civilization. Therefore, an effective World Order is the only escape. Hitler also talked of One World Order which meant the German domination over the whole world.

It was based on Nietzche's Theory of Super Man and Super Race. That World Order meant an enslavement of the whole world. An effective World Order for putting an end to war for good, means a world so organized that all nations enjoy political freedom and live in an atmosphere of perfect peace and harmony with each other.

It implies a world which is dominated by mutual goodwill and co-operation rather than by national jealousies and bickering. It is a dream of the world where international disputes are settled by pacific methods rather than through an appeal to arms. But such a World Order cannot be established in presence of Imperialism.

The World is divided into the 'haves' and the 'have-notes'. The strong nations exploit the weaker ones. In a true World Order all nations should enjoy political freedom to determine their own destiny and then should organize a world federal union. In matters of local interest each nation should be free to follow its policy and ideas. But all those metters which concern the world as a whole, should be tackled by the world federal government. Thus true World Order implies a Universal Brotherhood of Men and Nations.

Basis for the World Federation :

But a world federation presup­poses certain basic requisites for its success. In the first place, the industrial powers of the world should give up the idea of aggressive nationalism. Narrow and misdirected nationalism is the greatest stum­bling block in the way of internationalism. But enlightened and true patriotism far from being contradictory to world consciousness is a pre­condition of it. Misconceived nationalism goes for state glorification and thus leads to imperialism and war.

In the second place, the state should abandon the concept of absolute sovereignty. It is a matter of common experience that there is anarchy in the state if individuals do not accept the supremacy of the state authority. In the same way if the nation states do not recognize a higher international authority to adjudicate and settle their disputes, international anarchy cannot be put to an end.

In the absence of proper international authority and in the presence of absolute sovereignty of the states no real World Order is possible. The League failed, as it had no authority at its command to force its decisions on the sovereign member states. The stars of the U.N.O. also do not seem to be bright for the very same reason.

In the third place, the world federal government must be an associa­tion based on partnership and not on domination. Political equality of the component states must be recognized. All the states irrespective of their size and population should have equal voice in the determination of their policy and decisions.

In the fourth place, colonialism must end. Unless all people are free and masters of their destiny, no real peace and world federal government could be possible.

In the fifth place, complete disarmament should be accepted by states. Along with that the principle of peaceful coexistence must be accepted by states. No state should interfere in the internal affairs of the other states. States with different economic and social systems must be allowed to exist freely without external interference.

In the sixth place, states should abandon war as an instrument of settling international disputes. All states must bind themselves to settle their mutual disputes through pacific means.

The international organization must be allowed to operate directly over citizens of member states and over state entities alone. State must accept the position of federal units. The federal government must be armed with powers to enforce its decisions against states which do not accept its decisions within its jurisdiction. Municipal law must become a part of international law.

Thus the prospects of an effective World Order are not bright unless the nation states give up their mutual jealousies and unite together on the basis of political equality to usher in a new era in the world, i.e., era of international co-operation, peace and goodwill.

Points to Remember

1. The two ghastly wars fought within less than a generation turned the world desolate.

2. In 1919 the League of Nations was formed to bring peace to the bleeding humanity.

3. League proved a failure and was swept away in 1939.

4. Then came into existence the U.N.O. with the object of ridding the world of wars but its future is doubtful.

5. By 'world order' is meant domination of mutual goodwill and co­operation and universal brotherhood among nations.,

6. There are two obstacles in the way of world federation namely narrow nationalism and sovereignty of states.

7. Narrow nationalism leads to imperialism. Unless nation states surrender part of their sovereign ty,formation of world order will remain a pious wish only.


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