Though industries were established in different parts of India, industries are mainly found in a particular region of different parts of the country. Industries are centralized in one area and it is known as Industrial Estate.
In India, industrial estates are mainly divided into six types:
(a) Hooghly Industrial Estate,
(b) Bombay-Pune Industrial Estate,
(c) Ahmedabad, Baroda Industrial Estate,
(d) Chhotanagpur Plain Industrial Estate,
(e) Mandraz-Coimbatore-Bangalore Industrial Estate and
(f) Mathura-Delhi-Sahranpur-Amble Industrial Estate.
(a) Hooghly Industrial Estate:
The industries which are situated on both the sides of Hooghly River constitute Hoogly Industrial Estate. Jute industries are the important industry of this region but other industries like machineries, cotton, chemicals, skin, matches and paper etc. are also available plenty. Availability of jutes, availability of coal and skin in the nearby regions and transport of cargo through Kolkata port help a lot to develop this region.
(b) Bombay-Pune Industrial Estate:
This region is constituted by the different industries situated in Bombay, Andheri, Thane, Pimpri and Pune etc. Cotton industry is the important industry of this region. Except cotton industries, machineries and chemical industries are also found in this region. The cheap electricity facilities of Western Ghat mountain range, hydro electricity, plenty available cotton of Maharashtra and Gujarat, availability of cheap labour near Konkon coast and transport facilities in Bombay port help a lot to industrialize this area.
(c) Ahmedabad-Baroda Industrial Estate:
Ahmedabad which is situated in the cotton cultivated region of Gujarat is the second largest cotton industrial estate of India. Cotton industries of Surat Nausari, Broach and Baroda constitute this region. Availability of cotton in south Gujarat, cheap availability of salt in coastal area and cheap availability of labour near the plain valley of Gujarat help to industrialise this area. Though cotton industry is the important industry of this region but other industries like machineries and chemical industries have also been established.
(d) Chhotnagpur Plain Industrial Estate:
Due to plenty available mineral resources, metal industries are the important industries of this area. Iron and steel industries of Jamshedpur, Bokhara, Burnpur, Durgapur, and iron and steel industries and heavy industries of Asansol and Ranch! Constitute this region. This region has developed a lot industrially because of availability of iron-ore in Bihar and West Bengal, coal, manganese, mica or limestone and other minerals.
(e) Mandraz-Coimbatore-Bangalore Industrial Estate
Industries available in Mandraz, Coimbatore, Madurai, Bangalore, constitute this region. Cotton, silk and wool weaving industries constitute important industries of this region. Except these industries, Mandraz is famous for skin, chemicals and motor building industries. Machineries industries of Bangalore are also important. Cheap availability of electricity, cheap cotton and skilled labourers help to develop this area into industrially developed one.
(f) Mathura-Delhi-Sahranpur-Ambala Industrial Estate:
This industrial estate consists of two industrial belts. One belt is in between Faridabad and Ambala of Haryana and the other is Mathura and Sahranpur of Uttar Pradesh.
Delhi is surrounded by these two industrial estates. Agricultural machineries and agro-products industries are the important industries of this area. Cotton industries, chemical industries, glass machineries industries, paper industries, soap industries and oil refineries are situated here. Except these, sugar-cane industries are also available in this region. This area is developed industrially because of cheap availability of cotton, sugar-cane, wheat and thin sand.
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