Iron and steel, jute and cotton industries were established with the help of modern technique of production before independence. Industrialization has been given more importance after independence in different Five Year Plans. As a result, our country has become an industrially developed country now.
The following industries are the important industries of India:
- Iron and Steel
- Man-made fiber
- Chemical Fertilizer
Iron and Steel Industry:
The use of iron in India is too old. Iron Pillar of Delhi and use of iron in old temples of Puri and Konark show that iron was used in ancient time. The use of iron has increased in the modern days. Beginning from needles to machineries, cycles to aero planes and windows, doors, big buildings, dams and projects are prepared and constructed with the help of iron.
In our day to day life, we use iron and steel in different works. Iron is the result of the melting of iron ore. Different qualities of steel are produced with the help of different metals like manganese and chromium with iron. So iron-ore, highly inflammable coal, manganese, chromite's and limestone are known as raw materials of iron and steel industry. "
Though some steps were taken during 19th century to produce iron and steel in new technique, but modern technique was used in iron and steel industry only in 1907 when TATA established iron and steel industry. This iron and steel industry was established with the help TATA Iron and Steel Company. In the year 1918, Indian Iron and Steel Company established iron and steel industry in Burnout of West Bengal.
In the year 1923 Mysore Iron and Steel Industry was established in Bhadravati of Karnataka. It is now known as Base Sharia Iron and Steel Industry.
There was no significant development in iron and steel industry except these above stated three industries prior to independence. After independence, Central Government took serious steps to develop iron and steel industries in different plan periods. As a result Rourkela Steel Plant was constructed in Orissa with the help of West Germany.
A Steel Plant was constructed in Madhya Pradesh with the help of the U.S.S.R. Durgapur Steel Plant in West Bengal was established with the help of the U.K. and Bokhara Steel Plant in Bihar with the help of the U.S.S.R. All these iron and steel industries were in the public sector. The Burnout Indian Steel and Iron Industry which was in private sector became nationalized in the year 1972.
Steel Authority of India was established in the year 1978 and all the above iron and steel industries were under the control of SAIL. Except these new iron and steel industries like Salem in Tamilnadu, Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and Vijay Nagar of Karnataka have been constructed. Neelachal Steel Corporation now is in the Plan to be constructed at Datary of Orissa. There are also mini-steel plants in different parts of the country.
Due to nationalization of new industries and fruitful and planned expansion of private sector in the development of iron and steel industries, this has led to significant improvement in this field. Out of the Common Wealth States, England, Canada and India are first, second and third respectively in the field of iron and steel production.
Textile industry is an old industry of India. India is famous for her traditional hand-woven cottage industry for producing cloth. Gradually we used cotton, jute, wool and artificial fiber like rayon, terrene and polyester etc. to produce cloth and different types of textile industries have been established.
Cotton clothes are more popular in India because of hot climate. Cotton industry uses cotton as prime raw materials. With the help of cotton, sires, dhotis, chadors and sheets are produced. The first cotton industry was established in the year of 1851 in Bombay. Though cotton industries are found throughout the country but it is more expanded in the States of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamilnadu.
Except these States, cotton industries are also found in Kanpur and Midnapur of Uttar Pradesh, Kolkata of West Bengal, Gwalior of Madhya Pradesh, Mysore and Bangalore of Karnataka, Jetport of Rajasthan, Britani of Haryana, Amritsar of Punjab, Chuwar of Orissa and in the union territories of Delhi. Large scale cotton yarn industries have been operating to provide yarn to the handloom industry of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
The fibred of jute plant is known as jute. This jute is regarded as raw material of jute industry and bags, ropes, kerpal, karpet and small ropes are produced from it. The first jute industry was established in the year of 1854 in Risra near the river Hoogly which is situated 23 kms away from Kolkata. Most of the jute industries of India are situated near the river the Hoogly in West Bengal.
Jute is cultivated more near the Hoogly River. So jute industry gets more raw materials as jute. The reasons for the development of jute industry are transport facilities, availability of raw materials and Kolkata Port. Except West Bengal, jute industries have been established in the other States like Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.
Wool Textile Industry:
Wool is produced from the fur of sheep, goats and other animals. Wool is regarded as raw material of wool industry which produces shawl, sweater, blankets, mufflers and other warm dress materials. First wool knitting industry was established in 1876 in Kanpur.
Due to lack of good wool fur and lack of demand for these products, wool industries were not developed before independence. This industry has developed a lot after independence due to importance on different five year plans. These industries are now using good quality imported wool fur from Argentina and Australia. Important wool industries are found in Dhariwal of Punjab, Ludhiana and Amritsar, Bombay, Kanpur and Agra of Uttar Pradesh, Baroda and Ahmedabad of Gujarat.
Silk Textile Industry:
Silk worm or moths are, brought up in mulberry trees. Silk is obtained from the cocoons formed by silk worms. Silk is collected through this manner in the States of Jammu and Kashmir, West Bengal and Tamilnadu. In other regions like Orissa, Assam, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar, silk is collected not from mulberry trees but from Enid insects.
Silk and Tossups are used for silk fabrics. Silk fabrics are generally smooth and light. So these are very popular. In the year 1832, the first silk textile industry was established with the help of East India Company in Howrah of West Bengal. But now the important silk textile industries are found in the Srinagar of Jammu and Kashmir, Murshidabad of West Bengal, Goalpada of Assam, Amritsar of Punjab and in the Mysore and Bangalore of Karnataka.
Man-made Fiber Industry:
Nylon, terelene, and polyester etc. are artificial fibers. Rayon fiber is produced from bamboo and wood pulp, nylon fiber from coal and tideline fiber from petroleum. These fibers are durable.
Nowadays, we find different types of dresses and garments produced with the help of these artificial fibers. Except these, threads and ropes which are produced from these artificial fibers are strong and durable and they are also used to knit net to catch fish. Artificial fiber industries are found in Bombay, Kanpur, Kolkata, Chennai, Pune, Nagpur, Rajonpuram (Maharashtra) etc.
Buildings, bridges and dams are constructed with the help of cement. The development of a country depends upon the use and production of cement. The importance of cement is more for a developing country like India. The first cement industry of India was established in the year 1912 in Porabandar. Cement industry uses limestone, dolomite clay, gypsum in bauxite, coal ore and China clay etc. as raw materials.
Though cement industries are found throughout the country, they are found more in the States of Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Chemical fertilizer industry:
Chemical fertilizer industry is necessary for the development of agriculture and agricultural products. Chemical fertilizer industry uses Naphtha, the emission from oil purification industry, emitted gas from coal, emitted gas from thermal electricity, sculpture and gypsum etc. as raw materials and different types of fertilizers are produced.
Chemical fertilizer industry is second to iron and steel industry from invested capital and value of product point of view. The first chemical fertiliser industry was established in the year 1906 in the Ranipet of Tamilnadu. In the year 1951, after independence, chemical fertiliser industry was established in Sindhri. After that fertilizer industry has developed a lot.
Fertilizer industries are found in Sindhri of Bihar, Kamrup of Assam, Bombay of Maharastra, Naively of Tamilnadu, Always of Kerala, Nan gal of Punjab, Talcher, Rourkela and Paradeep of Orissa and Gorakhpur and Varanasi of Uttar Pradesh,
Paper is necessary for books, khatas and newspapers. Now-a-days paper is also used for packing extensively. In the year 1932 first paper industry of India was established in Srirampur of West Bengal. This industry was not developed before independence. During these last 25 years, paper industries have developed a lot. Soft wood, bamboo, grass, residue of sugar-cane, straw and other wastage papers are used as raw materials of paper industry.
This industry needs caustic soda, washing soda, bleaching powder like chemicals. Huge paper industries are found in Titagarh of West Bengal, Choudwar, Brajarajnagar and Rayagada of Orissa, Rajmuhendry of Andhra Pradesh, Nepanagar of Madhya Pradesh, Dalmia Nagar of Bihar, Lucknow of U.P., Faridabad of Haryana, Bombay of Maharashtra, Bhadravati of Karnataka and Pulam of Kerala. Newsprints are produced in Nepanagar.