Role of Central Government and State Government in promoting education in India

Education is a state subject according to the constitution, but con­troversy sometimes arises regarding the exact nature of control and func­tions of the centre and the state. The control held by the central government is very limited. It cannot enforced all its decisions upon the stale Governments. It recommended Basic Education as the national of elementary education, higher secondary as the suitable pattern at the adolescent level, and higher pay scales for teachers. But how many states have accepted the recommendations and complied with?

Some decisions have been accepted and some schemes implemented, but the motivating factor has been the lure of grants provided, or the party discipline as the same political party governs at the central and the slate level.

But lure of grants is not the solid and reliable affair. Nor is the party discipline permanent affair. One rule may change anytime, and coalition government by the opposition party (as in some states) may have to be formed. Hence constitutional provision for more control, vigilance and guidance is needed. One of the propositions put forth in that education should be put on the current list. The Indian Education Commission, however, feels that there is enough of scope in the present provision for enforcing central decision.

The I EC had made the following recommendations regarding the role of the centre and, the stales :-

(1) Role of the centre

(i) Existing provisions of the constitution should be exploited for the development of education and evolution of a national educational policy. Central leadership for the states is essential for a vast country like India.

(ii) Indian Educational service should be instituted, with a suitable method of recruitment of high quality teachers, administrators, planners and research workers. 5% IES officers may be posted in their own states.

(iii) The CAB and Ministry of Education should be strengthened.

(iv) NCERT should be developed as the principal technical agency for the improvement of school education with its numerous wings and departments.

(v) National staff of Educational Administrators should be estab­lished to provide in service education for senior officers in the Education Services, IES and Slate Education Service. Besides conducting short and long courses, it should have a research wing.

(2) Role of the State Government

(i) A statutory council of education should be created at the state level with the stale Minister for Education as the chairman.

(ii) A standing committee at the officers level including state level officers in charge of different sectors of education, should meet frequently.

(iii) The Education secretary, like Educational Advisor to the Government of India, should be an educationist rather than an administra­tive officer.

(iv) State Educational Service should have adequate number of class i and II posts. All D.E.O's should be to IES, and secretaries of District School Board to SES, class I. The scales of pay of the departmental stall should be correlated with UGC scales of pay for university teachers,

(v) In service educational programmes for non-gazette staff on the administrative and Inspectional side should be organized.

(vi) Fewer officers should be at the high level, and a larger at a lower level with adequate scales of pay.

(vii) Every three or five years, periodical review of important administrative practices should be held.

(viii) Two-third of available resources should be devoted to school education and only one-third to higher education.