India is a land of diversity in race, region, caste, language, mate, landform, flora and fauna and so on. From ancient time till day India has repaintained this diversity from very ancient time. Mature has shaped the country so. Rightly this land has been termed as "the epitome of the world." The fundamental diversity in India is gleaned from the following.
India is a vast country with great diversity of physical features. Certain parts in India are so fertile that they are counted amongst the most fertile regions of the world while other are so unproductive and barren that hardly anything car be grown there.
The regions of Indo- Gangetic Valley belong to the first category, while certain area of Rajasthan falls under the later category. From the point of view of climate, there is sharp contrast. As Minoo Massami has said that, "India has every variety of climates from the blazing heat of the plains, as hot in places as hottest Africa-Jacobabad in Sindh- to freezing point (the Arctic cold of the Himalayas).
The Himalayan ranges which are always covered with snow are very cold while the deserts of Rajasthan are well known for their heat. The country also does not get uniform rainfall. There are certain areas like Cherapunji in Assam which get almost 460" of rain -fall per year which is considered to be world's highest record on the other hand, Sindh and Rajasthan get hardly 3 inches of rainfall per- year. This variety in climate has also contributed to a variety of flora and fauna. In fact, India possesses richest variety of plants and animals known in the world.
India possesses a rich variety of races. In view of this variety Prof. V.A. Smith says, "From the human point of view India has been often described as an ethnological Dr racial museum in which numberless races of mankind may be steadied."
"The vast population of India consists of the jungles tribe (Hence Bhils, Kols, Santhals), the Greeks, the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Hunas, the Mongolians, the Arabs, the Turks, the Afghans etc. The physical features and color of the Indian people also differ from region to region- While the people of Kashmir are handsome and fair in complexion, these qualities are missing among the habitants of Assam.
India not only possesses racial diversity but also linguistic diversity- It is said that almost 400 languages are spoken in India. Some of the prominent language recognized by the constitution includes, Assamese Bengali, Gujrkti, Hindi, Kannad, Kashmiri, and Malayalam. Marathi, Or Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Terrill, Telgu and Urdu. In fact it is commonly believed that in India the language changes after every four kooks. There is not only variety of languages but also variety of scripts in India some of the popular scripts in ancient times were Pali, Kharosthi Devnagri, etc. What is really striking is that almost all these language- possess their own literature which differ a great deal from each other
Religious and social Diversity:
In the religious sphere also India possesses great diversity. Almost all the principal religions of the world like Brahmanism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity are found here. Most of these religions are further sub-divided into various sects and divisions.
For example, Buddhism is divided into Hinayana and Mahayana; the Jainism is divided into Digambaras and Septembers and the Brahmanism is divided into the Vaishnavas, Shivas, Shaktis, Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj etc. In addition the primitive men have their own peculiar cults which are quite distinct from these major religions. Thus we can say India possess completely diversity on religious sphere.
In the social sphere also the general customs and manners of the people greatly different. People of different regions use different types of dresses. Their eating habits and customs are also quite different. Certain people are quite civilized while other are yet backward in their customs. Thus we find as Radhakumud Mukherjee has put it, "India is a museum of cults and customs, creeds and cultures, faiths and tongues, racial types and social systems.
The diversity in culture, races, language, religion etc. greatly stood in the way of political unity in India. As a result from the earliest times, India has been divided into several independent principalities. The rulers of these principalities were always engaged in wars with each other for supremacy. This disunity and friction was fully exploited by the foreign invaders to bring India under their subjugation.
No doubt certain rulers like Chandra Gupta Maurya, Ashoka, Samudra Gupta, Ala- ud- din Khiliji and Akbar had subjugated these principalities and established strong empire but they were only handful of the rulers who could accomplish it. For most of the time India presented the spectacle of a divided country. Even under this mighty rulers a real unity could not be established both due to the lack of means of communication and transportation as well as national consciousness. In short, we can say that really speaking India could never be united politically.
In this way diversity pervades on the whole of Indian subcontinent. This diversity is so much so that a foreigner will simply stare at this. Anyway, such diversities are not the hallmarks of Indian culture. The main theme of this culture is unity which absorbs all the diversities.