8 significant principles underlying in the process of growth and development



There are certain significant principles underlying in the process of growth and development. These are as follows:

1. Development follows a pattern

The process of development is not haphazard but gradual and regular. We will find a particular pattern or sequence of development. In the cephalo-caudal sequence i.e. development proceeds from head to toe and proximo-distal sequence in this pattern direction of development proceeds from centre to periphen.

2. Growth is continuous and gradual

Growth always brings about certain change in the organism. But these changes do not take place suddenly. It is a continous process. All the parts of body continue to grow gradually until they reach their maximum through infancy early childhood, late childhood.

3. Growth proceeds more rapidly during early years

The rate of growth is not uniform. The child grows more rapidly during early years and slowly during the later years. Growth during early years is so rapid that it is easily noticeable and growth becomes slow at the later stages.

4. Development proceeds from general to specific

The child first shows general responses as a whole. Then gradually he gives specific response to specific stimuli. The child moves his whole hand to indicate certain thing instead of one finger. In the emotional aspect he responds through only general response like crying & smile to denote, hunger, pain & Joy and the baby produces general babbling sounds, before he can speak words.

5. Development is a product of heredity and environment

Heredity and environment have considerable impact on the growth and development of the child. The child is born with some genetically endowments and develops by interacting with his environment. Neither heredity nor environment is the sole factor responsible for the development of a child. Nutrition, home climate and school environment regulate social, emotional and intellectual development while child inherits physical stature and different traits from his parents.

6. Most of the traits are correlated

The physical and the mental development of the child are mostly correlated to each other. A child who has a good physical health is also above average in intelligence. A child whose intelligence is above average is also so in health size, sociability, attitudes and aptitudes. But this may not be always true.

7. Growth is not uniform

Different parts of body grow at different rates. All parts of body can never grow at the same rate. At birth, head is one fourth of the body in length. Later other parts of body grow very fast till it reaches maturation.

8. Development is predictable

In many cases it is possible to predict the type of probable development a child will follow, because the rate of development follows a Pattern. As it is possible to predict intelligence of a person with the help of an intelligence test given in earlier years. 'X'-rays of the bones of different parts of the body will tell approximately what will be the ultimate size.