In decoration or creating anything worth appreciation, certain principles are to be observed. They are not formulas that help us to judge why an object or design is artistically good or bad. This sense of good taste is acquired through experience. The major principles of design are: Proportion, balance, emphasis, rhythm and harmony.
This principle is known as the law of relationship, as it deals with the relationship in size, shape, colour, light, texture and pattern of the objects. It states how the relation between parts of the same group could be satisfying.
Balance is the principle of art that produces equilibrium- a feeling of rest, repose and steadiness. When objects of equal weight or interest are placed on either side of the central point, balance results.
There are two ways of creating balance:
1. Formal Balance
Formal balance or symmetrical balance results, when objects of equal and weight (identical) are placed at equal distance from the central point of interest.
2. Informal Balance
Informal balance or asymmetrical balance results when objects of unequal weights are arranged at different distance away from the central point in such a way, that they appear to be in equilibrium. Larger objects or heavy objects are placed closer to the central point and smaller or light weight objects are placed away from the centre.
Emphasis is that principle of art, by which the eye is first drawn to the most important focal point of any arrangement and then carried to other parts of the arrangement in order of its importance. Emphasis can be achieved by placing or grouping of objects, by using contrasting colours, by le sufficient space as background or by using decoration.
Rhythm as an art principle is defined as an organised movement-is to create interest and movement, and reduce monotony. It can be obtained through! Repetition of shapes, (b) Progression of sizes (c) an easily connected or continuous line movement.
Harmony means unity or a single idea of impression. When all the objects in a group seem to have familiar resemblance with each other, that group illustrates the principle of harmonious selection. It makes no difference whether we are dealing with interior decoration of a garden layout or a dress design. There must be harmony to create integrated and beautiful effects. Being the fundamental requirement of any design, it is the most important of all the art principles.