In every home, there are' resources which are to be utilized in such a way to get the best of results. Home-management deals with the practical application of the principles of management in the home. It is in fact a dynamic process, where by values are nurtured and wants satisfied. Here decisions are taken regarding the planned activity, taking care of the physical, psychological, spiritual, social, economical and technological aspects of family life. So, it is a mental process dealing with the administrative aspect of family living. Through management process, one is able to identify and locate available resources and use them effectively for the attainment of family goals.
Basically the management/process consists of four steps
Planning of activities
Planning is the first and foremost important step of the management process, consists of a series of decisions dealing with family activities, resources, changing family demands, and mapping out the course of action to be taken to reach the goal, it also involves problem-solving, setting priorities and distributing responsibilities to each family members. In addition coordinating the different planned activities and arranging the time sequence are all done meticulously in this process. A scientific approach in this step also involves answering questions to 'what', 'why', 'when', 'where', 'how' and 'who' of the planned activities.
All plans should be made to fit the needs of the individual and family. It should also be flexible enough for change whenever required to make the plan more realistic and] useful. In a family where more than one person is involved in making the plan, go communication among family members is highly essential for coordinating the activities and making the plan to run smoothly. Thus, planning is necessary for effective organization] and controlling of activities. It also provides a basis for other managerial activities.
Organizing and assembling resources is the second step of the management process, which is carried out just before the implementation of the plan.
In a home several activities are carried out daily. So, some form of organization is essential for good results. This becomes necessary when the home is established by I two or more persons who have to share in work and responsibilities. Organization thus
Consists of dividing and grouping activities and assigning them to each individual. Such form of coordinated activity ensures good relationship between family members, directed towards the fulfillment of goals.
It has been found that the size of the family and its economic status have an influence on the task of organizing. Today in a typical modern family, the housewife generally performs all the household activities alone. Sometimes she may even take the help of a part-time maid-servant, when she is employed outside. Such situation calls for a thorough organization of doing all works in proper sequence and in time to achieve maximum results. Even, when there are more adult members to share the work, the house manager has to organize in allocating work to each of them to ensure that nobody is over taxed.
Apart from organizing activities, assembling resources is done in this step to accomplish the goal. Resources are the tools of satisfying want. They may be human as well as, 'non-human,’ Human resources are one's abilities, attitude, knowledge and energy. Non-human resources are time, money, goods, and property and community facilities. One must understand that the availability of these resources are limited that must be carefully managed.
Controlling the work Process
Controlling the work activities is the most challenging of the management process. It is concerned with making events conform to plans or carrying out activities according to the plan. This requires knowledge regarding the various activities involved- effective understanding, motivation, leadership qualities, skilful direction by the home maker.
Controlling also involves a careful observance of performance. Literally, it is checking work and performance to be sure that everything is moving in the planned direction. If necessary, new decisions are taken, and plan altered to 'adjust' to the new situation. The more the person is aware of alternatives; the better is the chance of successful controlling. Hence, one should have the 'foresight to see through the problems and constraints to be able to 'control' carrying out the plan.
Evaluation is the final step of the management process, which is used to assess what has been done, and how effective the process was in relation to goals achieved. It helps in judging the success and achievement of a plan of action in a meaningful manner, where specific goals are involved. This would form as a guideline for modifying the plan or as a basis for future plans.