The following are the important factors which have led to the disintegration of joint family.
1) Rapid Industrialisation:
Rapid industrialisation in India is the main factor of the disintegration of joint family system. The joint family system was very popular among the rural people whose main occupation was agriculture. Due tot he impact of industrialisation, a number of industries, factories, are have been set up in India. In order to get employment people move from villages to cities. Industrialisation also affected the village and cottage industries. All these lead to the disintegration a decline of the joint family system in India.
2) Development of modern means of Transportation and communication:
In ancient times duet to the lack of quick means of transportation and communication people were compelled to live together in joint family and pursue the family occupation. They could not move from one place to another easily during those days. But in the twentieth century due to the impact of science and technology the means of communication and transportation have expanded rapidly.
As result of which people can move from one place to another within no time at present. It is no longer necessary for people to stay with the family and carry on their family occupation. Now-a-days, they go to the city and take up any other occupation and establish new family. Thus, the easy movement from villages to cities led to disintegration of the joint family system in rural areas.
3) Impact of Western culture and Civilisation:
Today the Indian way of living and thinking have been very much influenced by the western culture and civilisation. It has presented a new ideal nuclear family which is formed only by father, mother and their children. It is because all the members get freedom and enjoy equal right and privileges in the western families.
As a result of which the members who had so far been living in a joint family want to follow the living style of western pattern of single family. Because western families are based upon freedom, equality and love between man and woman.
4) Decline of Agricultural and cottage industries:
The decline of agriculture and cottage industries is another main factor or disintegration of the joint family in modern times. In the past agriculture and cottage industry was the main occupation of the rural people. But now the situation has changed. Today, with the establishment of factories, the goods and commodities which are produced by the village craftsmen cannot compete with the products of factories in respect of price and quality.
As a result of which the village industries suffer serious loss and finally close down. Due to the closing of the village industry the workers move to the city. Similarly, agriculture which was the main occupation of rural people now declined due to certain natural calamities such as flood, cyclone, drought, etc, all these factors lead to the disintegration of joint family.
5) Over-population and poverty:
One of the main disadvantage of joint family is that it produces a large number of children due tot he uncontrolled reproduction and thereby increases population. Increase in the population results in the scarcity of food and living place in the family. This resulted increasing unemployment and poverty in Indian villages. As it consequence people were forced to go away in search of employment. Thus the joint family disintegrates.
6) Problem of privacy and Accommodation:
Lack of privacy and shortage of accommodation have led to the disintegration of joint family system. Joint family does not provide adequate accommodation to its members thus, the newly married couple prefers to five in a nuclear family rather than living in a joint family, because, the nuclear family system provides necessary liberty, privacy and accommodation for a happy and better living.
7) Enlighten of women:
Traditionally, women are the worst sufferers in the joint family system. But now the spread of women education has led to the liberation women. Educated women do not like to live under the direct control of the male members. They prefer to live an independent life in a separate small family. As a result of which joint family disintegrates.
8) Impact of new social legislation:
The joint family system in India has been very much influenced by the new social legislations executed by our Parliament and State Legislative Assemblies. There legislations consisting of the Special Marriage Act of 1954, the Hindus Marriage Act of 1955 and the Hindu Succession Act of 1956. The Special Marriage Act, 1954 enabled the grown up boys and girls to marry against the wishes of their parents.
The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 enabled the women to seek divorce under certain grounds. The Hindu Succession Act.1956 gave the equal right of property inheritance to women. All these acts have greatly influenced the unity, integrity and solidarity of the joint family and have broken down the relationship between brothers and sisters, parents and children husband and wife and so on. Thus, the joint family automatically dissolves.
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