Poverty is a major social problem. To fight against poverty has become the prime concern of the Government of our country. Jawaharlal Nehru once expressed his hope that the contrast between places and miserable hovels of the lower class would not last long. In free India.
One day the poor will enjoy several powers as the richest in this land. So after independence our five Year Plans have been made it an objective to launch a direct attack on poverty. Now the Government of India has accorded top priority to the removal of poverty and brings the majority of the Indian people above the poverty line. Tin order to face the problem of poverty various measures are to be taken. The important ones are discussed below.
1) Economic Development:
To remove poverty there should be economic development. Within the framework of economic development three important factors are taken into consideration i.e development of agriculture, fuller utilisation of power and fuller utilisation of resources by establishing industries. Agriculture is regarded as the backbone of Indian economy.
For economic development, first there should be development of agriculture i.e agriculture should be modernised and should be made more productive oriented, profit oriented and employment oriented.
Our Five Year Plans have laid emphasis on the development of agriculture to remove poverty, employment opportunities and facilities should also be provided to people by the establishment of small scale and heavy industries. There should be revival of cottage industries and small scale industries which can make the backbone of village economy stronger.
2) Check on growth of population:
If present growth rate of population cannot be checked, soon a day will come in which we shall fight among each other for a single piece of bread. In this regard, the family planning or family welfare programme should be effectively implemented.
People should be made aware about this programme, and all the steps should be taken to make it a mass programme. Besides this, age to marriage should be raised and attracting benefits should be provided to the people whose family is small. Such check on population growth will have salutary effect on the economic development of the country.
3) Development of education:
Education should be more vocational. The practical educations like carpentry, agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry etc. Should be introduced in all the educational institutions. This will enable the educated youth to earn for himself and to add to national out put instead of being dependent on county or Government for a job.
4) Comprehensive social security measures:
A comprehensive social security measures should be taken by the Government as in the developed countries of the world like U.S.A., U.K. such measures includes financial assistance to those who face economic disability, i.e. pension for invalid and widow, unemployment assistance, medical assistance, sickness insurance, material and child security and assistance etc, by such provisions those people will be able to earn instead of being parasites on society.
5) Removal of personal disabilities:
Personal disabilities like prolonged disease, physical handicap, and mental diseases etc, cause poverty. Hence Government should take various steps as to enable these handicapped people to earn their own livelihood in this respect, Government should provide facilities like adequate and free health service to rural poor, control of various diseases by permanent public health programmes, rehabilitation of physically handicapped persons employment to old workers etc.
After independence, Government of India has been taking various programmes for the removal of poverty. The government of India has made an anti poverty programme to reduce mass poverty. It is believed that poverty can be removed within a decade by raising every family above the poverty line to achieve this end Government has laid down the following programmes.
i) Strengthen and expanding coverage of integrated rural Development (IRDP) and National Rural Employment Programme (NREP).
ii) Accelerating the programme for development of Scheduled movement.
iii) Promoting family planning on a vocabulary as a people movement.
IV) Liberalising invest procedure and industrial policies to insure timely completion of projects. Giving handicrafts, handlooms, small and village industries all facilities to grow up.
v) Distribution of surplus lands and other reclaimed land among the landless, particularly Harijans and Adivasis.
vi) To reinvest rural resources, whether mobilised through banks or otherwise in rural development.
vii) Decent raising industry to smaller towns and rural areas and creating modern mini industries in these areas.
viii) Increasing the efficiency of public enterprises by maximum utilisation of all available resources.