Caste System discharges many dysfunctions. These are known as demerits of disadvantages of Caste system. These are discussed below.
1) Denies of Mobility of Labour:
Caste System opposes mobility of labour. The individual under Caste System cannot accept any occupation according to his sweet will. But the individual is bound to follow, the occupation determined by Caste System. As a result, many people carry the burden of unsuccessfulness and pass life unhappily being incapable of accomplishing the determined occupation. Therefore, idleness takes place among individuals.
Caste System has created an ugly social evil which is known as untouchability. Due to the caste stratification the members of untouchable caste remain, in the lower place of social hierarchy and are oppressed and depressed. Mahatma Gandhi, the father of nation, says “untouchability is the hatefulness expression of Caste System and it is a crime against God and Man. The untouchables remaining under the grips of Caste System are deprived of all social, religious, economic, cultural and political rights and privileges.
3) Retards Social Solidarity:
Another dysfunction of Caste System is that it retards social solidarity. He imposes certain restrictions on food, drink, intercourse, occupation and selection of mates and thereby spoils social unity, integrity and feelings of brotherliness. There are senses like hatred, jealousy, envy and so on existing between higher and lower castes. As a result, the Hindu Society is disintegrated.
4) Obstacle to social unity:
Caste System creates obstacles to the unity of the country. The lower caste people in the society cannot express their dissatisfaction as they are deprived of all privileges of the society. As a result of this social unity is disintegrated. According to Prof. G.S. Ghurye, Caste System creates an unhealthy atmosphere for the growth of national unit E. Schmidt opines that one of the tragic results of Caste System is that it opposes national consciousness.
5) Obstacle to social progress:
Another demerit of Caste System is that creates obstacles in the path of social and economic growth to the country. The members of the caste gradually become conservative because they believe on the theory of karma. As a result of conservatism, they neither give up old customs and traditions nor accept easily any new ideals, values and scientific inventions. Therefore, impediments are created in social progress.
6) Oppose to Democracy:
Caste System opposes democracy, liberty, equality and fraternity which are the fundamental themes of a successful democracy. Democracy ensures equal right to all irrespective of caste, religion and color. But Caste System does not give equal rights to all members in the society. In caste ridden society the rights of the members are determined on the basis of social stratification. For example, while the members of higher caste enjoy all kinds of privileges, the lower caste people are oppressed. As a result the fundamental principle of democracy is spoiled.
7) Hindrance to the Development of personality:
Caste System hinders the developments of human personality. It is because individuals follow the occupation, which is determined by the Caste System compulsorily. The individual cannot accept any occupation according to his choice. But Caste System does not determine occupation on the basis of efficiency of the individual. For example, though a Shudra possesses required ability and efficiency for fighting he cannot take part in war with the Kshatriyas. As a result many talented persons cannot develop their personality living under the shadow of caste system.
8) Social Inequality:
Social inequality is a vital demerit of caste system. As a result of social stratification, every caste differs from each other and thereby creates social inequality in the society. Therefore, a sense of superiorities and inferiority is created in social, economic, religious and political spheres. The distribution of various essential commodities is also on the basis of superiority and inferiority in the society.
The members of the higher caste gradually become rich enjoying all kinds of privileges where as the lower caste people become poor being deprived of all privileges. As a result, Caste System creates a backward class who depends upon the people of rich community and led a life almost similar to domestic animals.
9) Bad conditions of Women:
Caste System is an obstacle to the freedom of woman in a male-dominated society. The condition of women is very miserable under this system. It is because Caste System deprives women of their educational right. The women lead an agonising life living in between the four walls of conservatism. Caste System encourages child marriage and prohibits widow remarriage. There by, it sends them to the hell of suffering.
10) Social Problems:
Lastly, caste system creates many social problems and disintegrates the society. These problems and child marriage, custom of dowry, casteism, poverty, suicide, family disorganisation and so on. These problems cannot be removed from India, unless Caste System is abolished.