India has a large number of unemployed people. This is true of the rural as well as urban fields. In urban fields, there are a large number of educated unemployed, and in the rural areas, this is true of all the categories of people. Per-capita income in rural areas, this is true of all the categories of people. Per capita income in rural areas and particularly those engaged in agriculture does not exceed a sum of Rs. 450 per annum.
According to the report, Rural Agricultural Commission, Indian Agriculturalists are unemployed for about 6 months in a year. In rural areas, apart from the unemployed of the people, since months there are landless people who are unemployed. This number is about 10 to 50 crores. All these things go to prove that there is a good deal of unemployment in the rural areas.
There are various factors responsible for this situation. The factors, because of which there is unemployment the rural areas, may be studied under the following heads:
1) Excessive increase in population or population explosion:
In India the population is crossing all bounds. It is accepted that within 20 years or so the population of this country shall have doubled. At this rate of increase in population, no country can guarantee full employment to its hands. This is truer of the rural areas where avenues of employment are limited. Programmes of family planning attempts to restrict the increase in population have so far not yielded the desired results. This does not work well for the country.
2) Limited land and great pressure on land:
India has a limited area of agricultural land. Attempt is being made to break the barren land and bring greater area under the orbit of the agriculture. In spite of it the rapid increase in population has so far failed all the attempts of the Govt. To provide proper agricultural land to all those persons who do not have land. Apart from this there is greater pressure on the land. In rural areas most of the people depend on land for their livelihood. This creates the situation of unemployment for a large number of persons in the rural areas.
3) Seasonal nature of agriculture:
Agriculture in India is a seasonal affair. It keeps the people engaged only for a few months. After sometime the farmer have nothing to do. There is a season for sowing and harvesting. After that the farmers have no job. During this period they remain unemployed and without job. This has adverse effect on the earning of the people and the standard of living. What is needed is that for this period, the agriculturalists should be provided with some job. This would help them to earn more and employ their free time in a gainful manner.
4) Lack of subsidiary and other village industries:
We have just now seen that for at least 4 to 5 months in a year village people remain unemployed. Their standard of living can improve only when they employed this period in a gainful manner. Such a thing can happen when cottage industries and other industries pertaining to agriculture are set up in the village. So far this thing has succeeded on the other hand, the village and cottage industries have deteriorated and so large number of people still remains unemployed.
5) Too much dependence on nature:
Agriculture in India depends too much on nature particularly for irrigation. If there is lack of such at the proper moment, the crop gets a set back. If there is inclement weather at the time of harvesting, the agriculture again gets a set back. All these factors create problems of unemployment.
6) Undeveloped and traditional methods of agriculture:
In India, agriculture is carried out through traditional methods. These methods are undeveloped. They require a good deal of time and large number of hands, yet the yield is not enough as to feed a large family and also provide for their other necessities. This has an adverse effect on agricultural employment position.
7) Lack of education and ignorance about scientific and modern means of agriculture:
Agricultural people are not educated. Due to lack of education, they are not able to utilise their energy in proper manner. Apart from it they are not able to know about the scientific and modern methods of agriculture. This makes their task cumbersome and time consuming. This has also an adverse effect on employment position which requires rethinking and reconsideration.
8) Lack of adequate means of irrigation:
We have just now seen that agriculture in India very much depends on nature. There are no adequate means of irrigation. Whatever means existing are hardly sufficient to provide water to all the fields. Because of dearth of irrigation facilities the agricultural yield is not at all sufficient to help the agriculturist to live respectably. It also has an adverse effect on employment position which in its turn has an adverse effect on the standard of living.
9) Small holdings and fragmentation of land:
Agriculture in India is disorganised. We have already talked about the dearth of irrigation facilities, too much of dependence on nature and other factors. The holdings are small and they are scattered and fragmented. Because of these drawbacks, the agricultural product is not at all sufficient for the people who depend who depend on it. Apart from it the agricultural out put is not commensurate with the labour that is spent on it. This has an adverse effect on the employment position. It also adds to the poverty of the village.