What are the main forms of the Community Development Programme under Rural Sociology?



Community Development Programme as we know is a socio economic programme aimed at development and re construction of the Rural Society. It aims at involving people in the development programme and making them self reliant and co operative. It also aims at encouraging them to take to new means for the development of the Rural Society. Because it aims at involvement and participation of the rural people, it is carried out by institutions of Local Self Govt, and Local Administration in the rural areas.

Basic institutions of community development programme:

Community Development Programme is carried out by 3 basic institutions at the village level, viz, 1) Village Panchayat 2) Co operative Societies 3) Village school.

In rural development and programme of community development, the village school and the village teacher plays a very vital role. The village teacher is the centre of activity of village people and so he is able to encourage people to involve themselves in the programme of village re construction.

Directions of community Development:

Various institutions responsible for carrying out the programme of rural development can give effective direction to various programmes of community project, what is needed is involvement of the teachers, and young men particularly in the process of social education.

Community centers:

In villages there are various community centers that look after various aspects of life of the village people. These community centers perform the following functions:

1) Establishing reading rooms and libraries and encouraging people to come over there.

2) Encouraging the village people to improve their standards of living. They arrange films and also take to other programmes in this respect.

3) Take to various cultural programmes.

4) They can establish contact with the guardians of the schools and arrange student guardians meet.

5) They can establish bodies and organisations for the welfare of the boys and girls.

6) They can undertake programme of National and Emotional Integration and also observe National Festivals in a manner that nationalism is strengthened.

Such centers have been envisaged in the programme for community development but so far these centers have not started functioning in the desired manner and direction.

Budgetary Planning of Community Project:

As a result of community project, it has been planned to set up a Block covering 19 villages with 80,000 people. One the basis of this the whole country and the different States have been divided into various Blocks, regions and zones. Allotment of the budget has been made in order to carry out the following stages of the programmes.

1) Pre extension Block Development 2) First stage of the Block department 3) Second stage of the block department.

Attempt if being made to carry out these programmes on the basis of these stages. Budgetary allocations have also been made accordingly.

Forms of Community Development:

Community development is in fact a process and a method to bring about proper development and upliftment of the village society. It has the following forms:

1) Community development as a process:

As a process it is responsible for bringing about social change. Before launching of this programme people do not interest in the planning and development activities. They do not have any interest in the study of their problems. Once this movement has been launched, people development interest in their problems and study the collectively. In this manner community development is a process for bringing about socio economic changes at the social and psychological level.

2) Community development as a method:

Community development is not only a process of social change but also a method for achieving this object. A particular programme can be carried out through law and also on the basis of force, but India is a democratic country which aims at bringing about a change with the co operation of the people. Community development is the best method for this. It is based on the co operation of the people.

Community Development as a programme:

Community development is also a programme on the basis of which the process of change is carried out. Without proper programme, neither the method nor the process shall have any utility. This programme implies development of the society through violent method and process.

4) Community development as a movement:

It is not only a method and a programme but a movement for eradicating illiteracy, unemployment and poverty. This programme aims at bringing about a change for the welfare of the people. It was launched as a movement for improvement of the village life. It is a democratic movement which is getting more and more institutional day by day. Govt, at the centre as well as at the level of the states have established separate ministries for the purpose.

It is based on the basic philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi and is aimed at infusing new life in the rural life. It is intended at al round economic, social, moral, psychological development of the society. It aims at the development of the individual as well as the society.

Programmes of Community Development:

The community development project does not aim at only one thing. It has a large number of programmes included in it. Through these programmes, it is intended to bring about the changes in the rural community. The programme included in the community development project is as follows:

1) Agriculture and connected works:

Community development is also aimed at bringing about the development of agricultural facilities. These facilities include, tilling the barren land, providing improved means of implements to the agriculturalists providing them with improved seeds and better irrigation facilities and making arrangement for improving the breed of the animals and so on. The real task is to bring about the improvement of the agriculture so that the condition of the Rural Society may improve.

2) Development of communication:

Rural society can improve only when means of communication and transport in the rural areas are developed. The community development project aims at construction of new roads and also making arrangement for transport and communication facilities.

3) Development of education:

The constitution of India envisages compulsory primary education. It implies that even adults have to be educated. Under community development projects centers of social education, night schools, and other institutions for imparting education have to be set up. Apart from it libraries, reading rooms and centers of social education have also to be set up. These institutions aim at expansion of education and extension of educational facilities.

4) Development of health services:

If rural life ahs to change, health services and facilities in the rural areas need improvement. It can be done by providing facilities for drinking water medical and health services, maternity and child welfare services etc, all these things are included in the community development programme.

5) Development of training facilities for workers:

A large number of workers are involved in the community development programme. These workers have to be trained so that they can discharge their duties properly. For these things the training of the programmes, include this things also. Once such facilities are available to the workers they shall be able to change the face of the Rural Society.

6) Development of the housing facilities:

Rural areas of India suffer from dearth of houses and especially hygienically designed houses. The community Development Programme includes providing better designs for houses and also making arrangement for better housing facilities. If these things can be done, the condition of the Rural Society shall improve.

7) Development of Social Welfare Work:

It is necessary to organise various social –welfare programme for the Rural Society so that people in the rural areas may have better facilities for recreation, health and other activities. Community Development Programme includes the activities for improvement of the social welfare work.

Characteristic Features of the Community evelopment Programme:

Community development project in India is an integrated programme for improvement and development of the rural society. This country has a large scope for it, particularly in the rural areas. It would mean change in the administrative set up and structure. It would also involve training and educational facilities. It has the following features:

1) Importance of Self Dependence:

The community development project aims at developing the self dependence in the people. It means through this programme they are trained to be become self dependence. They earn their livelihood and also solve their economic needs.

2) Area development or development of areas:

Under this project a particular area is chosen for development. This area in developed in different ways. Through these programmes an all-round development of that area is made.

3) Change in the administration:

If this programme of community development has to succeed, changes have to be made in the administrative set up. It involves changes in the tendency of the people. A new machinery has been evolved as a result of which different types of workers are placed in different administrative set ups. At the village level, there is a ‘Gram Sevak’ or a village worker and onwards there are other persons responsible for the development of the society.

4) Importance of the blocks:

Under this programme, a particular area is selected for development. That area is known as a block. Within that area attempt is made to develop agriculture, co operative animal husbandry, establish institutions of Panchayat Raj, bring about facilities for social education, public health etc.

5) Programme for the people and involvement of the people in the programme:

The most important feature of this programme is the involvement of the people. It is a programme in which people have to do things collective. It is programme for the people in which people have to be involved. In short it may be called a programme of the people, for the people and by the people.