Meaning and definition of him Community Development Project:
India is basically a country of the village. Rural people of this country are poor and conservative. They suffer from unemployment and under-employment and are not able to have normal standard of living .If India has to make real progress, this Rural Society has to progress.
It means that the rural people have to be educated, make conscious of the new development of the society and also encouraged to take to various types of new methods of forming Community Development project is intended at rural reconstruction and development of the rural life. The projects of Community Development are aimed at bringing about overall development of the village life and the society. This is how it has been conceived:
“The most commonly understood meaning of community development is to strive for the development of the community at all levels, economic, cultural and social.
Community Development as defined by United Nation Organinsation:
Community Development refers to the process by which the efforts of the people themselves are united with those Governmental authorities to improve the economic social and cultural conditions of the nation and to enable them to contribute fully to national progress”
Community Development as defined Planning Commission:
Planning Commission of India has clarified the community development as follows:-
“Community Development is the method of rural extension is the agency through which the Five Year Plan seeks to initiate the process of transforming the social and economic life of the villages”.
Community Development as explained by Government of India:
It is the programme of aided self-help to be planned and implemented by the villagers themselves, the Government offering only technical guidance and financial assistance. Its objectives are to develop self-reliance in the individual and initiative in the village community. Community thinking and collective action are encouraged through people’s institution like the Panchayats. Cooperative society and Vikas Mandals.
Aims of Community Development Projects:
The most important aim of community development is to bring about the changes in the Rural Society. These changes are in fact intended at development of the Rural Society. Community development project aims at all-around development people. It aims at involving people, particularly of the rural areas in the development activities.
In fact as Mr.S.K. Dey has stated the community project is a well through out plan to arrange the affairs to the community is san arbitrary manner. Really speaking community development is a process a method and a programme for upliftment of the rural life. It is an attempt to bring about a social and economic transformation of the village life through efforts of the people themselves.
This project is not confined to one an aspect of life according to United Nation’s Report, “Community Development is the process designed to create conditions of economic and social progress for whole of community development with its active participation and fullest possible reliance on community initiative.”
According to I.E. Jackson, “Community Development is encouraging a community to undertake on its own initiative, the various steps necessary to enrich the life of the community both materially and spiritually.”
Through Community Development Projects co-operation of the people is sought and taken in the planning and development activities in this respect, it has correctly been pointed out:
“Community Development is an opportunity where by the technical Government services are cancelled and guaranteed at the community level and as a method of operation designed to compliment the improvement of conditions from above, by the improvement of the condition through the initiative of people themselves”.
From the extracts and the quotations given above, we find that community development project is owned at improving the social, economic political, moral and spiritual conditions of the villages’. Aims of the community development projects may be summed up under the following heads:
1) Help in planning:
The community development projects are aimed at helping the villages in planning and developmental activities. Through these projects various schemes for improving the agricultural production are undertaken.
2) Helping the villages in industry and making them reliant:
An important object of the community development project is to make the village people self-dependent and encourage them to take part in the activities of national reconstruction. This is done through the following methods:
a) Changing the traditional and conservative outlook of the village people;
b) Organising the bodies of youth and ladies for taking part in developmental activities and arranging their welfare;
c) Making arrangement for recreation of the village youth and women.
3) Providing for the educational facilities to village people:
Through these projects, attempt is made to provide educational and other facilities for the village people. It can be done by the following methods:
a) Arranging for the centers of social education and schools and other institutions for providing education;
b) Making arrangement for different types of educational and recreational programmes;
c) Training the village people in the activities of planning and development.
4) Improving the standard of living of the village people:
Through these development projects, the standard of living of the village people is improved various employment facilities and providing to them and they are also given an opportunity to set up industries and improve the agricultural production. They are also encouraged to set up co-operative societies and other bodies through which they can undertake various activities of development and planning.
5) Political training:
Through the community development projects village people can be trained in the working of the democracy and other administrative activities. The village people should be encouraged to stay on the village and not ran to towns. It means that through these projects, the processes of urbanisation can be stopped and checked. It can be done by following methods:
a) This is a project as result of which the governmental machinery and the people come in greater contact and the distance that exists between is two is done away with.
b) Through the representation of the people, co-ordination and co-operation is established between the units of the administration and the people, particularly in regard to developmental and planning activities.
c) By setting up the Small Scale and Cottage Industries and training the village people in the improved scientific methods of agriculture the unemployment and under-employment in the villages can be mitigated to a great extent, of not completely done away with.
d) Through the working of the community development projects, people are trained in the practical working of democracy. Through these projects, the village people are trained in the art of civic affairs. They are also trained in the rules of hygiene as a result of which they are able to live a healthy life which would save them from falling a prey to various diseases.
Other Aims of the Community Development:
So far we have enumerated the general aims of the community development projects. These general aims also include certain specific aims that are basically intended at all-round development of the Rural Society. These projects aim at bringing about improvement in the conditions of the 82% of the population of this country that lives in the villages. Specific aims or objects of the plan may be categorised under the following heads
1) Agriculture and improvement of agricultural production; 2) Co-operation and encouraging setting up of co-operative societies; 3) Animally husbandry; 4)Public health; 5) Social education; 6) Improving the means of communication and transport in the rural areas. 7) Rising the disbanded village industries and setting up of new village level, Small Scale and Cottage Industries. 8) Organising and strengthening the village Panchayats.
Philosophy and Principles of Community Development Projects:
Community development project is a new experiment in the development and planning activities of the world. Such projects have been specifically launched only in Asian countries. In is an experiment, intended at fulfilling the various needs of the village society and also making them self-dependent.
Its is a part of the Indian constitution and aimed at establishing a socialist society in this country. Various plans that have been drawn up are the horoscopes of the Indian people that are based on realities of the Rural Society. These community development projects are based on the following principles:
1) Drawing programmes for fulfilling various needs of the community.
2) Involving the people in the planning and developmental activities:
These programmes are aimed at involving the people in planning and developmental activities. Through this co-operation, it is possible to bring about a balanced development of the country including the Rural Society.
3) To bring about material as well as psychological betterment:
These community development projects are aimed at bringing about material as well as psychological development of the people living in the rural areas. For this various projects have been launched.
4) Teaching people in democracy:
Through this community development projects not only the present conditions of the people are improved but they are also trained in the democratic methods and values. Under these programmes and projects various democratic organisations are set up these institutions are helpful in the development and improvement of the Rural Society.
5) To create the local leadership:
Political and development activities particularly in the rural areas cannot succeed unless the local people get involved into it. It means that training for taking the responsibility in the leadership has to be made Community development projects take care of it.
6) Drawing up of national policy for the development of the country:
These projects reflect the desires of the nation to go ahead. They are a part of the national policy for upliftment and development of the country.
7) Ideal Democracy:
It is a plan of democracy that puts the responsibility for the development on the people themselves. The job of the Government is only to provide protection according to the socialist policies. That is why various democratic institutions have been set up for its working.
This whole project is based on the co-operation of people. Its cardinal principle is to seek the co-operation of the people and involve them in the planning and development activities for betterment and upliftment of the Rural Society. Through there projects people are trained in the art of self-dependence.
8) Imitation of Co-operation:
These projects are carried out with the help of the co-operation of the people. They are based on the will of the community and the solution to various problems lies in them. Therefore there is need to involve almost all people in it. It is nothing but an imitation and implementation of the principles of co-operation.
9) Lending to Socialism:
The constitution of India is an instrument for establishing a socialist society through democratic instrument for establishing a socialist society through democratic means. These projects are based on that philosophy they try to remove the distinction between men and also change the face of society in a manner that it may usher in socialism.
These community development projects are the programmes of development and planning based on the decentralisation of economy, administration and political power. They are the means of training the people in the art of self-administration and creating the local leadership. They want to employ all the local resources for the development of the motion. The aim at training people to become self-dependent and self-reliant.
These projects are basically aimed at changing the face of the Rural Society. They have succeeded to a very great extent in adopting the philosophy of development and planning to the Indian conditions.