India is a country with innumerable diversities, an entity composed of many communities, races classes, languages and subcultures. In any such nation, there are many obstacles to the achievement of national integration.
In India the following hindrances are obstructing the growth of national feeling, casteism, communalism, linguistic fanaticism, social disparity, economic inequalities and immorality, regionalism etc.
Caste is an imported part of our social fabric. This was developed in the past on the basis of division of labour in the society. But now casteism has segregated the society. Unity and integrity has become a dream in a caste ridden society. The feeling of socially neglected scheduled castes under the suppression of upper caste ruined the sense of we feeling and unity. It becomes a problem for national integration.
Religions antagonism has posed a i serious challenge to national integration in India. India is a multi- religious land. Political manipulation has projected one religion against the other which resulted in communal riot, bloodbath, mutual, distrust and disintegration of the country. Large scale illiteracy and superstition are responsible along with other causes for raise communalism in the country. It is very difficult to promote national integration under these situations.
3. Linguistic Fanaticism:
Multi-linguism is one of the important characters of India. India has fifteen officially recognized languages. There are about 1652 languages are spoken in India which shows its diversities. There is conflict and riots on the languages issue. People of one language try to establish their language over others. When Hindi was declared as the national language people of South India resented against this decision supporting English language. Language issue became a barrier on the way of national integration.
There are several regions in India having their unique traditions, food habits, dress and languages. Each regional differs from the other in one or other ways which leads to disintegration of the country. People of one region compete with the person of other regions which leads to conflict and riots. Land dispute, language problem are some of the reasons which pose hurdle on the way of national integration.
5. Social Disparity:
Social disparity among the people of different communities, castes and sometime within the community and caste causes tension and imbalance among the people. Social disparity poses great challenge to national integration.
6. Economic Inequalities:
Economic standard of people in a state depends on the fertility of land, resources available and manpower management. All the states are not equal in the above matter which leads to economic backwardness of the people. Even in a state distribution of wealth is not properly done. Day by day poor becoming poorer and rich become richest this causes tension and conflict. It is a problem for national integration.
There are many programmes and plans for removing these hindrances. Education can become a very powerful instrument or national unity provided that it is used in the right manner.