Human resource development, in short, means investment in human capital. Human capital means people can act as capital assets which yield a stream of economic benefits over their working life.
An improvement in the mental capability, skill, and physical capacity of the people constitutes an increase in the human capital because this enables the human factor to produce more. Two types of expenditure can be called as investment in human capital.
One is expenditure on education i.e., general education and technical training and the other is expenditure on the provision of health care services likes hospitals, medicines etc.
For optimum utilization of existing physical capital, investment in human resources or capital is essential, as because technical, professional and administrative people are required to make effective use of material resources.
1. Education in India and Development of Human Resources
The basic objective behind development of human resources is to increase the productivity of labour. Productivity of labour can be raised either by more and more use of capital intensive tools and machines, and it can also be raised by imparting education both technical and nontechnical, to the laborers for skill-generation.
Macaulay under the British regime gave a system of education to India which produced only clerks. But for improving the pace of capital formation, human resource development was essential, in the form of change in existing educational structure and system and by more expenditure on education.
The Planning Commission during the Eighth Plan approved an expenditure of Rs 21,217 crore for education which was 4.9 per cent of total plan of public sector outlay. The Ninth Plan however does not specify allocation to education.
According to 1991 census, the literacy rate in our country is 52.11 per cent while in 1951 it was 16.67 per cent.
According to World Development Report 1999/2000 adult male illiteracy rate was 33 per cent in India in 1997 as against 9 per cent in China, 6 per cent in Sri Lanka, 5 per cent in Philippines and 3 per cent in Thailand.
2. Elementary Education
Elementary education especially universalization of free and compulsory education up to the age of 14, received a priority in the Eighth Plan. A national programme of midday meals was started in August 1995 to promote access, retention and nutritional care of primary school children.
During the Eighth-Plan, Operation Black Board (launched in 1987), National Programme of Nutritional Support (launched in August 1995), Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL), District Primary Education Programme (introduced in 1994), Bihar Education Project (launched in 1991), with a sharing cost from UNICEF, U.P Basic Education Project, Mahila Samakhya (launched in 1991) in. 10 districts of U.P, Gujarat and Karnataka etc. were all implemented.
For the realization of the goal of universalization of elementary education, the National Policy on Education had stressed on retention, participation and achievement rather than mere enrolment which is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for achieving the goal of universalization of education. Elementary education is a major thrust area during the Ninth-Plan.
3. Secondary Education
In the Eight Plan the thrust was on consolidation and improvement. The plan proposed to regulate expansion, with new facilities being created for deprived sections like girl, SCs and STs in rural areas. In order to meet the education needs of those who were unable to enroll themselves in the formal system, opportunities were provided through the National and State Open Schools, utilizing multi-media packages and contact centres.
During the Eighth Plan the number of secondary stage institutions (class IX-XII) increased from 84,076 in 1992- 93 to 1, 02,183 in 1996-97. The enrolment increased from 20.71 million to 27.04 million. By the end of 1995-96, the programme of vocationalisation had been expanded to 6476 schools with intake capacity of 9.35 lakh students, indicating that 11.5 per cent of students were in vocational stream.
The scheme of Computer Literacy and Studies in Schools (CLASS) continued to be implemented and an amount of Rs 146 crore was provided for maintaining the programme »n 1,598 schools and covering an additional 2,290 schools.The NOS (National Open School, set up in 1989) offered 51 foundation courses and 23 secondary courses in the area of Agriculture, Commerce and Business, Technology, Paramedical and Home Sciences.
For giving thrust to vocationalisation of secondary education a centrally sponsored scheme was launched in February, 1998. The Ninth Plan lays emphasis on the revision of curricula so as to relate these to work opportunities.
4. Higher Education
The major thrust in Eighth Plan was on (i) integrated approach to higher education, (ii) excellence and equity, (iii) relevance of higher education, (iv) promotion of value education, and (v) strengthening of management system in university institutions. Several colleges and universities were opened in North-East to uplift the deprived communities.
Faculty development through Academic Staff Colleges prescribing minimum qualification for teachers, teacher fellowships, travel grants and career awards were initiated during eighth Plan. Special efforts were made to enhance the library facilities and network (INFLIBNET). The scheme of University Science Instrumentation Centres was expanded.
Model curricula were produced in Curriculum Development Cells in different subjects. For quality improvement through a systematic assessment procedure the National Assessment and Accreditations Council was set up. The Gnanam Committee Report entitled "Towards New Educational Management" was accepted and formed the basis for action taken by the UGC.
The schemes of adult and continuing education and women's studies were further expanded during the Eighth Plan. At the end of the Plan, there were 104 centres of Adult Education, 22 centres of women's studies in addition to 11 colleges which had cells for Women's Studies.
The Ninth-Plan gives thrust on: (1) integrated approach to higher education; (2) excellence in higher education; (3) expansion of education in an equitable and cost effective manner, in the process making university and higher education system financially self-supporting and (4) making higher education relevant in the context of changing socio-economic scenario; and from this point of view redesigning and restructuring of courses and strengthening of research facilities.
5. Technical Education
The thrust areas in Technical Education during the Eighth Plan were : modernization and upgradation of infrastructure; quality improvement; responding to new industrial policy and consequent interaction between institution, industry and R and D organization; resource mobilization and institutional development.
More than 800 laboratories were modernized; about 550 projects were undertaken in Eighth Plan for strengthening the crucial technology areas and imparted training to more than 50,000 working professionals from industry. The IITs (Indian Institutes of Technology) took up consultancies and programmes under Technology Development Missions.
The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is entrusted with the responsibility of regulating, controlling and ensuring the quality of Management Education in the country. The formation of a National Board of Accreditation (NBA) and organization of a number of workshops contributed substantially to widespread awareness and concern for quality in Management Education.
During the Eighth-Plan, two new Indian Institutes of Management were set up besides the 422 institutions recognized by the AICTE. The annual intake of these institutes is 38,500 of which 25,600 are in full time, 6,600 in part time and 6,300 in distance education programmes. The Ninth-Plan gives stress on modernization and upgradation of infrastructural facilities, quality improvement in technical and management education and the strategy for raising non-budgetary resources.
6. Our Education Policy
Before 1976, education was a state subject. In a constitution amendment in 1976, education became the joint responsibility of both Central and States governments. The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE), which was set up in 1935, helped in the formation of National
Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, Programme of Action (POA), 1986 and a revised NPE and POA (1992)
National Education Policy (1968)
Macaulay planned a type of Education System which produced clerks but no intellectual or technician or scientist. There was need for changing the education system which was realized by the government in 1964.
Kothari Commission was constituted in 1964 which submitted its report in 1966. National Education Policy came into existence in 1968. It recommended that all children up to 14 years of age should get compulsory education, teachers should be trained and their salary should be raised, course curriculum should be modified to boost up agriculture and industry based education, all states should follow a 15 (10 + 2 + 3) years of education to bring uniformity in the education system of different states, and three languages could be taught i.e., English, Hindi and one regional language, in the school.
In August 1985 government decided to create a new education policy. The National Policy on Education was announced in 1986. It envisaged universalization of primary education and adult literacy by 1990. It gave stress on vocationalisation of secondary education, improvement of technical and higher education, development of regional languages and it also stressed the importance of the beneficial linkages between education, health, social welfare and employment progammes.
The revised National Policy an Education, 1992 was actually in line with the earlier policy
7. Councils, Institutes, Programmes and Schemes for Imparting Education for Human Resource
It is a project which gives stress on 'Education for All' through people's mobilization and their participation. Lok Jumbish (people's movement for Education for All) has been undertaken in Rajasthan with assistance from Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).
National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (Mid Day Meals Scheme)
It was launched on 15 August 1995 with the aim of improving enrolment, attendance and retention while simultaneously impacting on the nutrition status of students in primary classes.
Mahila Samakhya Programme
It was launched in 1989 with the aim of creating an environment for women to seek knowledge and information with a view to bringing about a change in their perception about themselves and that of the society.
The centrally sponsored scheme of Restructuring and Reorganization of Teacher Education was taken up in 1987- 88 to create a viable institutional infrastructure, academic and technical resource base for orientation, training and continuous upgradation of knowledge, competence and pedagogical skills of school teachers.
The scheme envisaged setting up of District Institutes of Education and Trainings (DIETs) in each district to provide academic and resource support to elementary education teachers and Non-Formal Education (NFEVAdult Education (AE) instructors. It also envisaged upgradation of selected Secondary Teacher Education Institutions (STEIs) into Colleges of Teacher Education (CTEs) and Institutes of Advanced Studies in Educations (IASEs) to organize pre-service and in-service training for secondary teachers and to provide extension and resource support services to secondary schools.
National Council for Teacher Education
It was established in 1995 with objective of achieving planned and co-ordinated development of teacher education system, regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards of teacher education and for matter connected therewith.
Integrated Education for Disabled Children
The scheme of Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) was launched in 1974 to provide educates for disabled children in the general school system so as to facilitate their retention and integration in the system, by giving 100 per cent financial assistance to provide education to disabled children which may include assistance towards books and stationary, uniforms, transport allowance, readers allowances for blind children, escort allowance for severely handicapped children, boarding and lodging charges for disable children residing in hostels.
Promotion of Culture and Values in Education
A centrally sponsored scheme of assistance for strengthening culture and values in Education is being implemented for providing assistance to government agencies, educational institutions, Panchayati Raj institutions, registered societies, public trusts and non-profit making companies. The scheme has two broad components:
(i) Strengthening cultural and value education inputs in the school and non-formal education system; and
(ii) The in-service training of art, craft, music and dance teachers.
National Population Education Project (School Education)
It was launched in April 1980 with a view to institutionalize population education in the school education system. It is also implemented in the Higher and Adult Education Sector.
Boarding and Hostel Facilities for Girl Students
For implementing the recommendation in POA-1992 to increase the enrolment of girls in secondary education and the NPE directive for encouraging NGO participation in education, the scheme for strengthening of boarding and hostel facilities for girl students of secondary and higher secondary schools was launched during the eight plan.
Computer Literacy and Studies in Schools
A pilot project on Computer Literacy and Studies in Schools (CLASS) was initiated in 1984-85 with the aim of demystification of computer and to provide 'hands-on' experience. The pilot project was organized in collaboration with Department of Electronics.
Improvement of Science Education in Schools
To better the quality of science education and promote scientific temper a centrally sponsored scheme "Improvement of Science Education in Schools" was initiated in 1987- 88 in accordance with the National Policy on Education, 1986.
National Open School
It was established in November 1989 by the Ministry of Human Resources Development to provide education to school drop-outs and those who cannot attend the regular classes.
A scheme was formulated in accordance with the National Policy on Education, under which it was decided to set up residential schools, called Navodaya Vidyalayas. The scheme was started with two experimental schools in 1985.
The Government approved the scheme of Kendriya Vidyalay Sanghatan in 1962 on the recommendation of the Second Pay Commission. In 1965, an Autonomous Body called Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan was established with the primary objective of setting up and monitoring Kendriya Vidyalayas to cater to the educational needs of the children of the transferable Central Government Employees.
National Council of Educational Research and Training
NCERT which was set up in 1981 assist and advise the Ministry of Human Resources Development in implementing policies and major programmes in the field of school education. It is financed by Government of India.
National Talent Search Scheme
The NCERT under its National Talent Search Scheme (NTSS) awards 750 scholarships including 70 scholarships for SC/ST candidates each year. Its aim is to financially assist the identified brilliant students for getting them good education.
National Awards to Teachers
These awards were started in 1958. Selections for award is done by State Level Selection Committee presided over by Director (Education) with State Co-ordinator of NCERT also as a member.
University Grants Commission (UGC)
Central Government has the responsibility of coordinating and determining standards in higher education. This responsibility is discharged through UGC which was established in 1956 under an Act of Parliament to take measures for promotion and co-ordination of university education and determination and maintenance of standards in teachings, examinations and research in universities.
The Commission can enquire into the financial needs of the universities; allocate and disburse grants to them; establish and maintain common services and facilities; recommend measures for improvement of university education and give advice on allocation of grants and establishment of new universities.
Indian Council of Historical Research
It was set up in 1972 which enunciates and implements a national policy on historical research and encourages scientific writing of history.
Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR)
It started functioning in 1981 with the aim of reviewing, sponsoring or assisting projects and programmes of research in philosophy, giving financial assistance to institutions and individuals to conduct research in philosophy and allied disciplines.
Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla
It was set up in 1965 as residential centre for advance research on humanities, social sciences and natural sciences.
Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)
It is an autonomous body for promoting and coordinating social science research.
National Council of Rural Institutes
It was set up on October 19, 1995 as an autonomous organization fully funded by the Central Government to promote rural higher education on the lines of Mahatma Gandhi's revolutionary ideas on education, consolidate network and develop educational institutions and voluntary agencies in accordance with Gandhian philosophy of education and promote research as a tool for social and rural development.
Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU)
IGNOU was established in September 1985 with the aim of widening access of higher education to larger segments of the population, organising programmes of continuing education and initiating special programmes of higher education for specific target groups like women, people living in backward areas, etc. IGNOU introduced its programmes in 1987.
Scheme of Area Intensive Programme for Educationally Backward Minorities
It was started in persuance of the revised Programme Of Action (POA) 1992, with the objective of providing basic educational infrastrucutre and families in areas of concentration of educationally backward minorities which don't have adequate provision for elementary and secondary schools.
Scheme of Financial Assistance for Modernization of Madrasa Education
It was launched during 1993-94 in pursuance with revised Programme of Action (POA) 1992, to encourage traditional institutions like Madrasa and Maktabs to introduce Science, Mathematics, Social Studies, Hindi and English in their curriculum.
National Literacy Mission (NLM)
It was launched in 1988 with the aim of attaining functional literacy for 100 million persons in the age group of 15-35 (including age-group of 9-14 where Non-formal Education is not in operation) in a time-bound manner..
Indian National Commission for Co-operation With
India is member of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) since 1946. The government established an Interim Indian National Commisison for Co-operation with UNESCO (INC) in 1949 which was later put on a permanent footing in 1951, with the aim to advise the government of India in the matters falling in the domain of UNESCO and to play an ever increasing role in UNESCO's work particularly in the formation and execution of its programmes. The Commission has been last reconstituted in June, 1997.
National Book Trust
It was an autonomous organization which was established in 1957. The activities of NBT are (i) publishing; (ii) promotion of books and reading; (iii) Promotion of Indian books abroad; (iv) assistance to authors and publishers and (v) promotion of children's literature.
International Standard Book Numbering System
This system is started in 1985 and aims at boosting the export of indigenous publications at the international business areas.
8. Health and Nutrition
According to the Census of 1951, the life expectancy at the time of birth in India was 37.2 years for males and 36.2 years for females. Since then it had risen to 62 years for males and 64 years for females in 1997.
On the basis of the recommendations of the Health Survey and Development Committee (More Committee in 1946) and the Health Survey and Planning Committee. (Mudaliar Committee in 1961), the Government of India made its programme for raising the health standard in the country, whose objectives are:
(i) provision should be made for the control of epidemics (ii) health services should be provided in such a form that in addition to the control of various diseases, care of patients also becomes possible, and (iii) programmes for the training of employees in the Health Department should be geared and speeded up and the primary health centres should be developed in the rural sector for improving medical facilities in the country.
Health development programmes were integrated with family welfare and nutritional programmes for vulnerable groups, during the Sixth Plan.
The Srivastava Committee asked for a new approach to health care services, by imparting the services to community and train health workers from within the community itself.
Under the Sixth Plan, the main objective was to provide better health care and medical care service to the poor people, including those living in rural areas. A community based health care programme was launched. In urban areas normal medical facilities based on specialities and super specialities were not expanded.
Under the Seventh Plan, a special health scheme was implemented to provide a few medical facilities to relatively neglected sections of the society. Planning Commission was not prepared to accept that expenditure on health and medical services is an investment on the development of human resources.
During the Eight Plan, stress was there to raise the number of hospital beds in urban areas and convert rural primary health centres to rural hospitals.
During the Ninth Plan, stress will be given on improving the health status of the population by optimising coverage and quality of care by rectifying the critical gaps in infrastructure, manpower, equipment, essential diagnostic reagents and drugs. Efforts are being directed to improve the functional efficiency of the health cadre system.
State Nutrition Divisions in the Health Directorates of different states surjreys the diet and nutritional status in various groups of the population, conducts nutrition,, education campaign and supervises supplementary feeding rogrammes.
The Government of India passed the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act in 1954 to prevent adulteration in food articles.
In spite of efforts of improving health and nutritional status of the people by the government, public health spending in India is at the level of 1.3 per cent of GDP only.