Notes on the different types of Agriculture followed in India

In India the following types of farming are practiced:

1. Shifting Agriculture:

(i) In shifting agriculture, land is obtained by cleaning forest and agriculture is practiced till the fertility of the farm is exhausted. After this another farm is cleared and agriculture is practiced on it.

(ii) Usually, plant, tuber crops like yam, tapioca and root crops are raised. (Hi) It is practiced mainly by tribal living in forest.

2. Subsistence Agriculture:

(i) In subsistence agriculture, farmer and his family produce cereals for themselves only or for local market.

(ii) Cereals like wheat, rice, millets are mainly raised. This is practiced in most parts of India even today.

3. Intensive Farming:

(i) Intensive farming aims at maximum possible production on the limited farms with all efforts possible under the circumstances.

(ii) Intensive farming is capable of raising more than one crop a year.

(iii) Huge capital and human labour is employed on every hectare of land.

(iv) It is practiced in most parts of densely populated areas.

4. Extensive Farming:

(i) It is the modern system of farming done on large farms.

(ii) It is also known as mechanical farming due to extensive use of machines.

(iii) Extensive farm raises only one crop a year.

(iv) Employment of labour and capital per hectare of land is comparatively less.

(v) It is practiced in sparsely populated areas like USA, Canada, Russia and Australia.

5. Plantation Agriculture:

(i) In plantation agriculture, bush or tree farming is done on huge areas.

(ii) It is capital-centered and needs good managerial ability, technical knowledge, improved machineries, fertilizers, irrigation and transport facilities.

(iii) A particular or single sown crop like rubber, tea, coconut, coffee, cocoa, spices and fruit crops etc. is sown and the yield is generally obtained continuously for a number of years.

(iv) It is practiced in Kerala, Karnataka, Assam and Maharashtra.

(v) Plantation agriculture requires a long growing period.

6. Commercial Agriculture:

(i) Commercial Agriculture is practiced to raise crops on a large scale with a view to export them to other countries and earn money.

(ii) Commercial agriculture is done mostly in sparsely populated areas.

(iii) Purpose of commercial agriculture is to sell the produce for money.

(iv) Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Maharashtra, mainly practice this type of farming.

(v) Wheat, cotton, sugarcane, corn etc. are some of the commercial crops.

7. Dry Land Farming:

(i) In dry land farming moisture is maintained by raising special type of crops. Gramjowar, bajra and peas are such crops which need less water.

(ii) This is practiced in dry areas of the country such as western, north-western India and central India.

(iii) It is practiced in low rainfall areas or where there is inadequate irrigation facility.

8. Wet Land Farming:

(i) Wet land farming depends mainly upon rains, so it is practiced in high rainfall or well irrigated areas.

(ii) In this type of farming rice, jute and sugarcane are grown.

(iii) This type of farming is prevalent in the north, north-eastern India and on the slopes of the Western Ghats.

On the basis of seasons, crops grown in India can be classified as follows—

(i) Kharif: Kharif crops are grown with the start of monsoon till the beginning of winter (June-July to October-November). Rice, maize, millets, cotton, groundnut, moong, urad etc. are kharif crops.

(ii) Rabi: Rabi crops are sown with the start of winter till the beginning of summer (October-November to March-April). Wheat, barley, gram and oilseeds are rabi crops.

(iii) Zaid: Zaid crops are grown in short season of summer. Watermelon and cucumbers are zaid crops.