A process which tends to wear down the land surface it is usually applied to a river and involves the deepening of its valley by the river. Soil erosion is a serious problem in hills, arid and semi-arid areas.
Causes of land degradation:
(a) In recent years industrial effluents and wastes have become causes of land and water pollution in several parts of India.
(b) Degradation of natural vegetation caused by over-grazing by animals.
(c) Deforestation and careless management of forests.
(d) Mining and industry are two important activities of man which cause degradation of land. Surface mining lead to degradation of land.
(e) There are certain natural causes soil degradation such as running water, glaciers, wind etc.
(f) The mineral processing like grinding of lime stone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generates heavy amount of dust and releases it in the atmosphere. It latter on settles down in the surrounding areas affecting infiltration of water and crop cultivation.