Paragraph on the Boycott and Swadeshi Movement

Swadeshi, literally meaning 'one's own country' aimed at the promotion of indigenous industries. Alongwith Swadeshi, boycott of British goods was organized. The annual session of the Congress was held at Calcutta in 1906. For the First time, it declared the attainment of Swaraj as the aim of the Congress. Promotion of national education was declared as an aim of the Congress. During the Swadeshi and boycott movements, shops selling foreign goods were picketed'. In return the government banned meetings, the chanting of the national song Bande Mataram composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was prohibited, recognition was withdrawn from schools and their grants were stopped. Processionists were lathi charged. In 1907 the session of the Congress was held at Surat. The 'moderates' and the 'extremists' came into conflict. They wanted to write into the constitution of the congress a clause that self government was to be achieved through constitutional means and reforming the existing system of administration. The 'extremists' worked separately until the reunion in 1916 (Lucknow Pact).The repression was brutal in Bengal, Maharashtra, Punjab and Tamil Nadu. In 1907 the seditious Meetings Act was passed to prevent the holding of meetings likely to promote disturbance of public tranquillity. In 1910, the Indian press Act was passed which gave the authorities wide powers to punish the editors of any paper which published matter which in their view was incitement to rebellion. A number of papers were banned and leaders imprisoned and deported. Tilak was sentenced to six years imprisonment and deported to Mondalay (Myanmar).