The public law is that branch of law which determines and regulates the organization and functioning of states (country). Also it regulates the relation of the state (country) with its subjects.
Public law includes (i) constitutional law, (ii) Administrative law (iii) criminal law, (iv) municipal law (v) international law; criminal law is enforced on behalf of or in the name of the state.
On the other hand, private law is that branch of the law which regulates those of the relation of the citizens with one another as are not of public importance .In this sense the state, through its judicial organs, adjudicates the matters in dispute between them.
In other words, it is primarily concerned with the rights and duties of individuals to each other .under it, the legal action is begun by the private citizens to establish rights (In which the state is not primarily concerned) against another citizens or a group of citizens. Private law includes, (i) Law of contract (ii) Law of tort (iii) Law of property (iv) Law of succession, (v) family laws. Private law is sometimes, referred to as civil law. In the case of private law the role of the state is merely to recognize and enforce the relevant law.