A perfect market is one where there is perfect competition. This is a model market. It implies absence of rivalry.
According to Boulding, “the competitive market may be defend as a large number of buyers and sellers all engaged in the purchase and sale of identically similar commodity, who are in close contact with one another and who buy and sell freely among themselves”.
Features of Perfect Competition
1. Large number:
In perfect competition, there must be large number of buyers and sellers. Each buyer buys a small quantity of the total amount. Each seller is so large that no single buyer or seller can influence the price and affect the market. According to Scitovsky buyers and sellers are price takers in the purely competitive market. Each seller (or firm) sells its products at the price determined by the market. Similarly, each buyer buys the commodity at the price determined by the market.
2. Homogeneous product:
Under perfect competition, the product offered for sale by all the seller must be identical in every respect. The goods offered for sale are perfect substitutes of one another. Buyers have no special preference for the product of a particular seller. No seller can raise the price above the prevailing price or lower the price below the prevailing price.
3. Free entry and exit:
Under perfect competition, there will be no restriction on the entry and exit of both buyers and sellers. If the existing sellers start making abnormal profits, new sellers should be able to enter the market freely. This will bring down the abnormal profits to the normal level. Similarly, when losses will occur existing sellers may leave the market. However, such free entry or free exit is possible only in the long run, but not in the short-run.
4. Perfect knowledge:
Perfect competition implies perfect knowledge on the part of buyers and sellers regarding the market conditions. As a results, no buyer will be prepared to pay a price higher than the prevailing price. Sellers will not charge a price higher or lower than the prevailing price. In this market, advertisement has no scope.
5. Perfect mobility of factors of production:
The second perfection mobility of factors of production from one use to another use. This feature ensures that all sellers or firms get equal advantages so far as services of factors of production are concerned. This is essential to enable the firms and industry to achieve equilibrium.
6. Absence of transport cost:
Under perfect competition transport, cost does not exist. Since commodities have, the same price it logically follows that there will be no transport cost. In the event of the presence of cost of transport, there will be no single price in the market. Transport cost occurs when there is no perfect knowledge of the market conditions on the part of buyers and sellers.
7. No attachment:
There is no attachment between the buyers and sellers under perfect competition. Since products of all sellers are identical and their prices are the same a buyer is free to buy the commodity from any seller he likes. He has no special inclination for the product of any seller as in case of monopolistic competition or oligopoly. Theoretically, perfect competition is irrelevant. In reality, it does not exist. So it is a myth.