The Governor is the chief executive authority in a state. He is appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.
The Governor is appointed for a period of five years, but holds the office at the pleasure of the President. He may be removed by the President before the expiry of his term or he may even resign.
Powers and Functions of the Governor:
His functions include
1. Executive Powers:
a) He is the constitutional hard of the state;
b) He appoints the leader of the majority party as the Chief Minister;
c) He appoints the members of the council of minister on the advice of the Chief Minister;
d) He appoints the Advocate General, Chairman and members of the respective State Public Commission;
e) He nominates two Anglo-Indian members in the Vidhan Sabha;
f) He can seek any information from the Chief Minister.
2. Legislative Powers:
f) He is a part of the state legislative and can summon, adjourn or prorogue the state legislative.
g) He can call for a joint sitting of both the houses.
h) No bill can become a law until the Governor signs it.
i) He can withhold a bill and send it to the President for consideration.
j) He can issue ordinances during the recess of the legislature.
k) He can dissolve the State Assembly before the expiry of its term on the advice of the Chief Minister or as directed by the President.
l) He causes the annual Budget to be presented in the Vidhan Sabha.
No money bill can be introduced in the Assembly without his prior approval.
3. Judicial Powers:
a) The governor appoints the district judges.
b) He is consulted in the appointment of the judges of the High Court by the President;
c) He can, pardon, remit and commute the sentence of a person convicted by a state court.
4. Financial Powers:
a) He causes the annual budget to be laid before the Vidhan Sabha;
b) No money bill can be introduced without his prior approval.
5. Discretionary Powers:
The Governor can use these powers:
a) If no party gets an absolute majority, the Governor can use his discretion in the selection of the Chief Minister;
b) During an emergency he can override the advice of the council of ministers. At such times, he acts as an agent of the President and becomes the real ruler of the state;
c) He uses his direction in submitting a report to the President regarding the affairs of the state; and
d) He can withhold his assent to a bill and send it to the President for his approval.