Brief notes on the Evergreen and Deciduous Forests



1. Evergreen:

The Tropical Evergreen Forests lie on either side of the equator in places that receive more than 80% of annual rainfall. The hot and humid condition causes the luxuriant growth of a variety of vegetation.

In some places, the growth is thick that sunlight rarely reaches the ground. Forests of Amazon and Congo Basin are dark and gloomy in many places.

Common hardwood trees are Mahogany, Ebony and Rosewood, all of which are of great commercial value. There are Mangrove Forests in some coastal swamps and deltas. As these forests are dense and gloomy, no large animals can live here. Monkeys, birds, snakes, etc., are the common animals as they can climb to the treetops.

Mediterranean Forests and found on the western coast of continents approximately along the 400 North and South latitudes. These regions have a hot, dry summer and mild wet winter. Therefore, the plants found here are those that can protect themselves against loss of moisture in summer.

Trees are short with small, leathery leaves and long roots. Some trees like the cork have thick barks and some have spiny leaves. Most of the trees bear fruits that are exported all over the world. Common trees are cork, oak, olive and chestnut.

Common animals found here are a variety of goats, red fox, jackal and birds like the spoonbill and endangered golden eagle. The climate and soil of this region is ideal for fruit growing especially citrus fruits. A large number of people are engaged in horticulture. Some wheat is also grown.

Coniferous Forest are belt of evergreen trees that stretch across the continents of North America, Europe and Asia, roughly between 550 and 650 N latitude. These forests have large areas covered with a single variety of trees. The trees, which are conical, have needle-shaped leaves to withstand the severe cold and heavy snowfall. The common trees are pine, cedar, fir and spruce. Animals with thick fur inhabit these forests and thus many inhabitants of this region are hunters. The fox, reindeer and bear are valued for their fur.

2. Deciduous:

The Tropical Deciduous forests occur just north and south of the hot and wet equatorial forests. This region has a distinct dry season; therefore, the trees shed their leaves at the onset of summer or winter. The most valuable trees are the teak and sal, oak and elm. This region has a great variety of animals like the lion, tiger, elephant, bear, and buffalo. There are smaller animals like the fox, a variety of deer, wild ass and monkeys.

Most of these areas receive moderate to heavy rainfall, which is seasonal. The climate is favorable for the growing of food crops like rice, wheat and millets in the drier parts. A large number of people are engaged in agriculture and related industries.