Education is essential for every society and individual. It is life itself but not a preparation for life. Man has various qualities. These qualities of the individual should be developed for the improvement of the country. So education plays a complementary role for overall individual, social and national development. It enables an individual to realize his highest self and goal. The key functions and roles of education towards individual, society and country are listed below.
Functions of education towards individual:
(1) Development of inborn potentialities- Education helps the child to develop the inborn potentialities of child providing scope to develop.
(2) Modifying behavior- Education helps to modify the past behavior through learning and through different agencies of education.
(3) All-round development- Education aims at the all round development of child-physical, mental, social, emotional, and spiritual.
(4) Preparing for the future- After completion of education the child can earn its livelihood getting proper education, which has productivity. The education should be imparted according to the own interest of the child.
(5) Developing personality- The whole personality of the child is developed physically, intellectually, morally, socially, aesthetically and spiritually. He is recognized in the society.
(6) Helping for adjustability- Man differs from beast. Man has reasoning and thinking power. Man tries his best to adjust with his own environment through education.
Functions of education towards society:
(1) Social change and control:
The society is never station. It is progressive and dynamic. The child lives in society. It is the social environment where the personality of the child can be developed. The old traditions, customs are preserved and transmitted with the situations, which are ever changing. We should not think or believe in the blind beliefs, which are hindrances towards our development. Education helps to walk with the development of science and technology.
(2) Reconstruction of experiences:
Education is life-long process. Life is education and education is life. Life is full of experiences. One cannot live with his past experiences which are unable to adjust in the society. So education helps the individual to reconstruct the experience and adjust with the environment.
(3) Development of social and moral value:
Society is always in tension with narrowism. There is no social or moral value. Now the man is behaving like an animal. Animality can be changed with moral education. Education teaches the moral value and social value like co-operation, tolerance, sympathy, fellow feelings, love affection, respect towards elder, helping the poor and needy persons.
(4) Providing opportunity or equality:
Indian Constitution has introduced the term ‘equality’ because we are not getting equal opportunities in all aspects. Education teaches us to give equal opportunities in all aspects irrespective of caste, creed, color, sex and religion.
Functions of education towards nation:
(1) Inculcation of civic and social responsibility- Education helps to make rising generation to understand its rights and duties as citizens of a democratic country.
(2) Training for leadership- The leadership quality of the individual is developed when he participates in all spheres of social, political, religious and educational activities.
(3) National integration- We are living in one country having diversities in respect of color, caste, language, diet, dress, habits and physical environment.
Educational integration leads to emotional integration. Education trains people for unity, not for locality, for democracy and not for dictatorship.
Education serves the most important end of educating the man.
(4) Total national development- Education helps for bringing about total national development by developing its all aspects i.e. social, economic, cultural, spiritual, moral, educational, etc.
Therefore, really education is an essential ingredient for all ages and stages of the life of an individual, society as well as the nation. Education can be a real panacea for all social evils.