Write a brief note on the geography of India



India is situated in the southern part of the Asian continent between 5o and 35o N latitudes. Its length and width is almost equal. The physical features are marked by high mountains in the north and a plateau in the south. We can divide India into four physical regions, viz.

i) Northern chain hills and mountains,

ii) Alluvial Gangetic plains extending from Punjab to Bengal,

iii) Deccan Plateau, and

iv) Coastal plains of the peninsular region.

In the north, the huge Himalayan Mountains and the allied range stand in protection of the country against the cold dry winds blowing from the northern region of the Asian continent. They also check the summer monsoon and cause rainfall; otherwise, the monsoon winds would have drifted away leaving India dry.

Not only this, the Himalayan Mountain range is the source of several big rivers which flow through the plains carrying enough water all round the year and for irrigating dry fields during hot and dry months. These rivers are replenished with water by the melting of snow on the mountain peaks. Water from these rivers is used for irrigation, industrial and drinking purposes. Several dams have been constructed to store water for producing electricity and for channelizing the outgoing water in irrigation canals, which is a great relief to farmers.