Coordination can be defined as combined efforts of various related organizations and agencies to achieve the goal/target of a task and is therefore very essential. In fact, there is always scope for improvement in coordination between various agencies/organizations working for relief and rehabilitation. There are three main bodies involved is disaster management.
PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES OF COORDINATION :
In Disaster Management, all the concerned organizations, agencies, and the public have common goals as discussed below. re-Disaster Situation- for disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness to minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters.Disaster Situation- to provide effective relief, rehabilitation of affected people and recovery of the community. There are no set principles or rigid techniques for coordination in disaster situation because each disaster situation is unique in its own way. But, coordination is more effective if we follow the basic principles of coordination given below:
1) Clear Role Allocation :
There should be clarity in roles of different participant organizations. They should know their authority and limitations. There should not be duplication of roles.
2) Networking :
All concerned organizations should have proper networking. This will provide them better understanding of strengths and weaknesses of each other and will also ensure proper coordination of efforts besides avoiding duplication.
A proper networking of NGOs will give them the idea about the capacity and capabilities of each other. This knowledge is very essential for coordination among NGOs.
3) Practicing coordination during exercises.
4) Knowledge of professional competence of individual organization
5) Knowledge of available resources including financial resources
6) Transparency in the action of various organizations involved in management.
ROLE OF LEADER AND COORDINATOR :
A good leader or coordinator can make the task simple and more effective. He can serve the affected people within limited resources and be cost-effective. Role of a leader starts from pre-disaster situation. He has a very important role during and after the disaster. Roles of leader/coordinator are almost same and are given below:
Identification of safe places or protected areas, when disaster impact occurs. He should be able to convince the community that they should reach these safer places at the time of pre-warning. Normally, people do not want to leave their houses and belongings even after several warning and even police intervention. But a good leader can persuade them to move to safe places. In cyclones and floods, such evacuation of people can save a lots of human lives and catties.
Leaders take decision concerning post-impact priorities for rescue, temporary evacuation, shelter, immediate needs of the community crucial to the lines and livelihood of the affected people.
Leaders implement self-help measures and induce spirit of cooperation. They take decisions to organize external assistance which can significantly defer or alleviate potential hardship for those who have lost their home and means of livelihood. Involving people and community in the decision making, implementation of plans and their participation at every step of relief or rehabilitation process by keeping complete transparency.
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