The man who led India's struggle for independence against Great Britain was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was born on 2nd October 1869 at Porbandar, in Gujarat. Gandhi studied law in London and became a barrister. He went to South Africa to work as a lawyer. The white people in South Africa treated the natives and the Indians settled there badly. He was distressed to see it. He fought for their cause for more than 20 years. He was a man of great courage and determination.
Back in India, Gandhiji joined the struggle for the cause of the weak and the oppressed. He developed the concept of Safxagrafta—fight for establishing truth. People joined him in large numbers. He practiced non-violence and wanted his followers to practise it too.
India was under the British rule at that time. They were exploiting the people and resources of our country. He joined the peaceful battle for freedom against the British Raj in India. He held many satya-grahas and went to jail. The people of India followed him blindly and fought against the British rule. Gandhiji became a great leader of the Indian National Congress.
Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement in 1942 against the British. He was arrested and later released in 1944. The British finally decided to withdraw from India in 1947. Gandhiji was deeply grieved that India was divided by the British into India and Pakistan. He led a simple life and wore only khadi clothes. He urged the people to use the charkha to make cloth every day. The people in India loved him and called him Bapu. He is indeed the Father of the Nation. He was shot dead on 30th January, 1948. Although, he is no longer with us, his ideas and his writings are an important part of our lives. Mahatma Gandhi lived and died for the welfare of his countrymen. He wanted us to be Indian first and Indian last.
In 1964, Martin Luther King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, Four years later, he was gunned down in Memphis, Tennessee, on the balcony of his hotel. Each year, the third Monday in January is celebrated in the United States as Martin Luther King Day.