Now let us study the various conditions, which are essential for maintaining good health.
1. Proper Diet
Proper care of the body begins with a good diet. Well balanced diet containing requisite amounts all the essential nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals), roughage and water is essential for maintaining good health. A good diet is not so much a question of money as of knowledge how to choose and prepare foods properly. Through proper knowledge, we can plan a balanced diet, which is within the reach of most of the people.
We can also protect our health and avoiding certain substances in the diet. For example, avoiding sugar helps prevent cavities in our teeth. In order to control the cholesterol (which causes heart diseases) in the blood, the fat content on the diets of the older people should be limited.
2. Personal and Domestic Hygiene
Personal hygiene concerns itself with the adjustments which the individual must make of preserve and improve his health. We must keep our body clean and wear clean clothes. We should take bath and change clothes regularly. If we do not take bath or change clothes regularly, our body and clothes, begin to smell. This is due to growth of microorganisms. Microorganisms affect our health adversely. Special attention should also be paid to nails, hair, teeth, hands and feet. It is very important to wash hands thoroughly with soap after going to latrine or toilet. Hands should also be always washed before handling food.
IN domestic hygiene, house should be kept clean and free from files and insects. Micro-organisms can infect and spoil our food. Therefore food should be kept protected from files and insects. Utensils should be thoroughly cleaned, preferably with some detergent powder or ash.
3. Clean Food
Food consumed should be free from micro-organisms and harmful chemicals such as pesticides. The presence of certain types of micro-organisms I food can take it harmful and in some cases even deadly. Fruits and vegetables generally have micro-organisms and pesticides sticking of their skin. Therefore, it is very important to wash them with clean water before consuming. Food items should also be protected from files as they are carrier of many disease causing bacteria. Most of the bacteria which are responsible for food-borne illness cause their damage in the gastro intestinal tract.
4. Clean Water and Air
In order to keep good health drinking water must be clean and free from bacteria. In the cities, water supplied by public health department through pipes is generally suitable for drinking as it is filtered and treated with disinfectants before supplying. However, in rural areas due to poor sanitary conditions water available is unsafe for drinking purposes and causes a number of water borne diseases. In order to avoid the water-bourne disease, it is advisable to boil and filter water before drinking. In ponds, water is generally infected with bacteria. Washing clothes and utensils or taking bath in such ponds can cause many diseases. Hence, these activities should be avoided.
Pure air is also very important for maintaining for good health. The places of work and living should be well ventilated. Gases released by industries, motor vehicles and through burning of fossil fuels at various places pollute the sir. Breathing polluted air causes chronic respiratory disease. In rural areas, traditional chulhas produce a lot of smoke which adversely affects the health of the ladies. Therefore, smokeless chulhas should be preferably used.
Regular exercise is also very important to maintain good health. It is especially important for sedentary workers. Exercise keeps the muscles in good tone, makes bone stronger and helps the lungs, heart and blood vessels work well.
6. Sleep and Relaxation
During each 24 hour period our body needs a number of hours of r=total rest. During the rest period the cells of the body recover from the work of the day the build up supplies of energy for the next period of activity. Thus, regular sleep and relaxation are very important conditions to maintain good health.
7. Avoiding Hazardous Substances
Avoiding certain hazardous substances such as tobacco, alcohol and narcotic drugs help in maintaining good health. These substances affect the body as well as mind of the individual. Cigarette smoking causes cause of lung cancer. Tobacco use also causes cancer of the mouth, larynx and oesophagus. Smoking causes chronic lung diseases leading to shortness of breath. Alcohol affects the brain, the heart and the digestive system especially the liver. The illicit use of narcotics can damage physical as well as mental health of the person.
8. Prevention of Accidents
We should take all possible precautions to prevent accidents. For examples, floors should not be slippery, stairs should be safe, electrical appliances should be used properly, poisonous chemicals such as insecticides should be stored out of reach of children, vehicles should be driven carefully.
9. Preventing Diseases
All precautions should be taken to protect our body from various diseases. Children should be immunized against common diseases through vaccination.
10. Proper Education
Good health can be achieved through our effort and proper health education. We can maintain a good health only if we are aware of various factors which affect our health.