How was petroleum (or crude oil) formed ?

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It is believed that petroleum (or crude oil) was formed due to the decomposition of the prehistoric vegetable micro-organisms and sea animal under high temperature, high pressure and in the absence of air.

The remains of the dead micro organism sank to the bottom of the sea. Gradually, these were covered by sand and clay .Over a period of millions of years, these remains got converted into petroleum under the combined effect of high temperature, high pressure and bacteria in the absence of air. The petroleum so formed passed through porous rocks until it got trapped between some impervious (non-porous) rocks.

The more volatile components of petroleum form a gaseous cover over petroleum. Such a gaseous mixture covering the crude oil is known as natural gas.


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