How to separate a mixture of water and alcohol by the process of distillation ?

Experiment:

Aim:

To separate a mixture of water and alcohol by the process of distillation.

Aids:

  • Distillation flask
  • Thermometer
  • Leibig condenser
  • Conical flask
  • Burner
  • Stand

Method:

  • Take a mixture of water and alcohol in the distillation flask.
  • Connect the flask to the receiver, that is, a conical flask.
  • Adjust the apparatus firmly on stands.
  • Heat the mixture.

Observation:

At 780C, alcohol starts to vaporize. The vapours are condensed in the condenser and alcohol is collected in the receiver. Water is unaffected at this temperature.

Result:

The mixture is separated into its constituents, alcohol and water.

Soluble impurities can be eliminated from a sample of water by distillation as water vaporizes at 1000C leaving the impurities behind in the distillation flask. The vapors which condense are of the purest form of water called distilled water.

Preparation of carbon dioxide:

CO2 is prepared in the laboratory by the action of dilute hydrochloric acid on marble pieces (calcium carbonate).