A well-developed money market is essential for a modern economy. Though, historically, money market has developed as a result of industrial and commercial progress, it also has important role to play in the process of industrialization and economic development of a country. Importance of a developed money market and its various functions are discussed below:
1. Financing Trade:
Money Market plays crucial role in financing both internal as well as international trade. Commercial finance is made available to the traders through bills of exchange, which are discounted by the bill market. The acceptance houses and discount markets help in financing foreign trade.
2. Financing Industry:
Money market contributes to the growth of industries in two ways:
(a) Money market helps the industries in securing short-term loans to meet their working capital requirements through the system of finance bills, commercial papers, etc.
(b) Industries generally need long-term loans, which are provided in the capital market. However, capital market depends upon the nature of and the conditions in the money market. The short-term interest rates of the money market influence the long-term interest rates of the capital market. Thus, money market indirectly helps the industries through its link with and influence on long-term capital market.
3. Profitable Investment:
Money market enables the commercial banks to use their excess reserves in profitable investment. The main objective of the commercial banks is to earn income from its reserves as well as maintain liquidity to meet the uncertain cash demand of the depositors. In the money market, the excess reserves of the commercial banks are invested in near-money assets (e.g. short-term bills of exchange) which are highly liquid and can be easily converted into cash. Thus, the commercial banks earn profits without losing liquidity.
4. Self-Sufficiency of Commercial Bank:
Developed money market helps the commercial banks to become self-sufficient. In the situation of emergency, when the commercial banks have scarcity of funds, they need not approach the central bank and borrow at a higher interest rate. On the other hand, they can meet their requirements by recalling their old short-run loans from the money market.
5. Help to Central Bank:
Though the central bank can function and influence the banking system in the absence of a money market, the existence of a developed money market smoothens the functioning and increases the efficiency of the central bank.
Money market helps the central bank in two ways:
(a) The short-run interest rates of the money market serves as an indicator of the monetary and banking conditions in the country and, in this way, guide the central bank to adopt an appropriate banking policy,
(b) The sensitive and integrated money market helps the central bank to secure quick and widespread influence on the sub-markets, and thus achieve effective implementation of its policy.