At a Glance
1. The Second World War began in September 1939. India was made an ally of Britain. The Congress objected to it. It asked the British government for independence after the war. The Cripps Mission arrived in India in AD 1942. It proposed the giving of Dominion Status to India. It also gave freedom to the Princely States of joining India or remaining independent. The Congress rejected the proposals.
2. Gandhiji launched the Quit India Movement in AD 1942. The government banned the Congress and arrested its leaders. A large number of people were jailed.
3. The Indian National Army or the ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ worked towards securing India’s freedom. Subhas Chandra Bose was actively involved in it.
4. The weakening of Britain after the war, the growing popularity of socialism and the coming to power of the Labour Party conditions that was favorable for India’s independence.
5. The Cabinet Mission of AD 1946 proposed the formation of an interim government and the convening of a Constituent Assembly. Jawaharlal Nehru headed this interim government.
6. Lord Mountbatten announced the partition of India into two countries- India and Pakistan. The partition led to riots all over the country.
7. India became a free country on 15 August 1947. Jawaharlal Nehru was elected as the first Prime Minister.
8. There were four major tasks before the new Indian government- integration of the Princely States, rehabilitation of the refugees, solving the economic problems and framing the constitution.
9. Even after independence, some areas were still under French and Portuguese rule. By AD 1954, all French ruled areas were integrated with Indian. Goa which was ruled by the Portuguese, became a part of India in AD 1961.
10. Mahatma Gandhi became a martyr on 30 January 1948.
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