What are the various means of communication available in modern India ?

Communication is the sending and receiving of spoken or written messages between people and places. Letters are the most common means of communication. Other means are telegram, telephone, telex, fax, e-mail, radio, television, newspapers, etc.

Every city and nearly all the villages of our country have post offices. We can buy postcards, inland letters, envelopes and stamps from the post office. We can also send parcels and money through money orders to our frinds and relatives. This method of communication costs very little. Quick Mail Service and speed post have also been started in some big cities. India has one of the largest postal Service networks in the world.

We can send or receive messages more quickly by means of a telegram. We do it through the telegraphs office. The telegraphic message should be very brief.

Telephone is the fastest means of communication. Today, we can talk to people in far-off cities or even in different countries through the STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) and ISD (International Subscriber Dialing). Telephone facilities are available in all cities, towns and most of the villages these days. India has made great strides in the telecommunication sector in recent years. Telephone services are better and much cheaper than before. Cellular phones are also being increasingly used.

We can also send message by electronic-mail (e-mail) and the internet to any part of the world on the computers. The internet is a worldwide computer network, by which a user can connect his computer to another computer in any part of the world. E-mail is a very inexpensive means of communication.

The letter, telephone and e-mail are personal means of communication i.e. they are used as means of communication between individuals.

When we have to communicate with a big group of people, or many people at one time, we have to use means of mass communication Newspaper, radio or television, etc., are means of mass communication.

A newspaper has something for everybody. It gives opinions, information and news of interest from every corner of the world. In India, newspaper and magazines are published in English and regional languages.

Those who cannot read or write listen to the radio or watch programmes on television. These two means of mass communication have revolutionized our everyday life. Now we can listen to news, discussions and enjoy the different programmes of entertainment without leaving home. On radio and television, there are programmes for students and farmers. Now we can see films at home with our family. We can even watch events as they are happening in any part of the world sitting at home. We can also learn about the habits and culture of the people of different parts of the world.

Every means of communication is useful in its own way. Together, they help us keep in touch with our friends, relatives and the world.