India is a very big country. The land surface has high mountains, plateaus and plains. Some parts of our country are near the coast while others are far away from the sea. These features affect the climate of our country. Some places are very hot, while others remain dry for the greater part of the year. But despite a varied climate, the whole country experiences the same cycle of seasons-the summer season, the rainy season, and the winter season.
The summer Season
The summer season starts in the month of April and continues till the end of June. During these months, the rays of the sun are nearly vertical. The days are long and nights are short. The heat is unbearable during the months of May and June.
In the Northern plains, very hot winds called loo blow and cause dust storms. The southern part, due to its nearness to the sea, is less hot. The cool winds coming from the sea keep the temperatures low. The desert in the north-western part of India is extremely hot. Dust storms occur almost every day in the desert areas. The mountains have a cool climate during this time of the year.
The Rainy Season
During the month of June, the monsoon winds begin to blow landwards from the sea. These winds bring a large amount of moisture with them, which forms black clouds. These monsoon winds blow from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
The first showers of rain come to the Malabar Coast in the month of June. Slowly, these winds spread over the whole country. The western coast and the eastern and north-eastern regions receive heavy rainfall from these winds. Cherrapunji, in the Meghalaya, receives the maximum rainfall and is the rainiest spot in the world. Rajasthan and Gujarat receive very little rainfall.
The Winter Season
By October, the rainy season comes to an end all over the country and the days become short and the night become long. The rays of the sun are not overhead. The air turns cooler in the plains marking the coming of the winter season.
The winter season lasts from November to February every year. In the Northern Plains, very cold wind blow making the winter months severe. Most of the hilly areas receive heavy snowfall. January is the coldest month in the Northern Plains. The winter season in Peninsular India is mild as a result of the influence of the surrounding water bodies. The coromandel Coast receives heavy rainfall during this season.
The desert is cool during the day but cold at night. The air starts warming up in the month of March, and the weather is neither cold nor hot. This time of early summer is also called the spring season. Every part of our country regularly experiences this cycle of seasons.